The first bibliography in this series, entitled ``Picture Processing by Computer'', appeared in ACM Computing Surveys in 1969; it contained only 408 references. The second bibliography (``Progress in Picture Processing: 1969-71''), containing 580 references, appeared in the same journal in 1972. Since then, 23 annual bibliographies have appeared in CVGIP. The present bibliography is thus the 25th in the series, and its appearance marks the 25th anniversary of the series.
Until 1986, the scope of the bibliographies remained approximately the same; as a result they gradually grew in size. The numbers of references in ``Picture processing: 19xx'', for xx = 72-86, were 350, 245, 341, 354, 461, 609, 819, 700, 897, 982, 1185, 1138, 1252, 1063, and 1436. After 1986, it became necessary to repeatedly reduce the coverage, eliminating major topics such as image coding and processing, image analysis applications, and computational geometry. As a result, the numbers of references in ``Image analysis and computer vision: 19xx'', for xx = 87-93, were 1412, 1635, 1187, 1611, 1178, 1897, and 1281. (Note the effect of ICPR on the sizes!) The continued growth of the literature has made it impractical to cover many important sources in detail; for example, for all but a few major conferences and paper collections, individual papers are not cited.
To continue the bibliographies in their present form, further cuts in their scope would be necessary. Alternative approaches are therefore under consideration. As more and more of the literature becomes accessible in electronic form, it will become increasingly possible to provide pointers to collections of items (tables of contents, sets of abstracts, or even full texts) and to create lists of keywords that define subject areas, so that searchers can compile their own customized lists of references. ``Image analysis and computer vision: 1995'' will probably be very different from its 25 predecessors.
This is the twenty-fifth in a series of bibliographies on computer processing of pictorial information, covering primarily items published during 1994. The coverage is restricted almost entirely to a selected set of U.S. or international journals and conference proceedings. No attempt is made to summarize or evaluate the items cited; the purpose is simply to provide a convenient compendium of references, grouped by subject.
The references are arranged under the following headings: (A) General references (B) Related topics (C) Applications (D) Computational techniques (E) Feature detection and segmentation; image analysis (F) Two-dimensional shape; pattern (G) Color and texture (H) Matching and stereo (I) Three-dimensional recovery and analysis (J) Three-dimensional shape (K) Motion Letter/number codes in the text (A.1, etc.) correspond to sections of the bibliography.
Papers, books, etc. relating primarily to specific topics will be cited in later sections. In this section we cite references that relate to more than one topic:
(A.1) Meetings and meeting proceedings: [1-33]
(A.2) Books [34-40]; paper collections [41-45]; journal special issues or sections [46-53]; meeting reports [54-55]; papers on research at specific institutions [56-75]; survey and position papers [76-79]; and the previous bibliography in this series 
The following related areas are not covered systematically, but we give a few references on them:
(B.1) Geometry and graphics: [81-90]
(B.2) Compression and processing: [91-108]
(B.3) Sensors and optics: [109-129]
(B.4) Visual perception: [130-151]
(B.5) Neural networks: [152-169]
(B.6) Artificial intelligence and pattern recognition: [170-181]
(C.1) Documents: [182-188]
(C.2) Biomedical and biological: [189-211] ____________________ On these topics, only selected references are given.
(C.3) Human: [212-276] (see also [277-282])
(C.4) Industrial; robotics: [283-319]
(C.5) Mobile robotics: [320-369]
(C.6) Target recognition: [370-402]
(C.7) Remote sensing: [403-435] (see also [436-440])
(D.1) Architectures and environments: [441-497]
(D.2) Multiscale methods: [498-511]; estimation and regularization: [512-536] (see also )
(D.3) Operations: [538-596]
(D.4) Morphology: [597-632]
(D.5) Other topics: Geometric operations: [633-640]; calibration: [641-655]; databases: [656-667]; performance characterization: [668-671]; etc. 
(E.1) Features: [673-726] (see also [727-730] and [731-735])
(E.2) Segmentation: [736-777] (including contour extraction [778-809]; thresholding [810-819]; and segmentation of range data [820-824] and 3D data [825-831])
(E.3) Analysis (including grouping, attention, control, etc.): [832-878]
(F.1) Representation, evolution, delineation, decomposition, recognition, etc.: [879-917]
(F.2) Properties; (2D and 3D) invariants: [918-961]
(F.3) Contours and curves: [962-1005]
(F.4) Skeletons and thinning: [1006-1047]
(F.5) Topology: [1048-1054]; distance: [1055-1063] (see also [1064-1066]); path planning: [1067-1084]; formal languages: [1085-1093]
(G.1) Lightness and illumination: [1094-1105]; color: [1106-1126]; infrared: [1127-1130]; polarization: [1131-1134]
(G.2) Texture: modeling and synthesis [1135-1161] (see also [1162-1163])
(G.3) Texture: description and segmentation [1164-1211]
(H.1) Image, template, and model matching: [1212-1275]
(H.2) Hough transforms: [1276-1307], etc.: ; special topics in matching (fusion: [1309-1314]; range and 3D images: [1315-1326]; graphs, etc.: [1327-1335])
(H.3) Stereo: [1336-1413]
(I.1) Recovery: [1414-1497]
(I.2) Range sensing [1498-1508]; range data analysis: [1509-1540]; see also [1541-1544]
(J.1) Models: [1545-1604]
(J.2) Recognition: [1605-1658]
(J.3) Other topics (pose, topology, etc.): [1659-1673]; [1674-1688]
(K.1) Flow computation: [1693-1725]; egomotion estimation: [1726-1760]
(K.2) Structure from motion: [1761-1806]
(K.3) Dynamic scenes: [1807-1860]
(K.4) Tracking: [1861-1885]; other topics: [1886-1911]
For brevity, the following frequently cited sources are cited in abbreviated forms:
@string(CVPR = "IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern") @string(Recognition = "") @string(ECCV = "European Conference on Computer") @string(Vision = "[ 9] HPRIP:") @string(CV = "Handbook of Pattern Recognition and Image Processing: Computer") @string(Vision = "") @string(ICIP = "International Conference on Image") @string(Processing = "") @string(ICPR = "International Conference on Pattern Recognition") @string(IUW = "[ARPA] Image Understanding") @string(Workshop = "") @string(SIGGRAPH = "SIGGRAPH '93") @string(Conference = "") @string(SPIE = "Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers")
@string(AI = "Artificial Intelligence") @string(C&S = "Cybernetics and Systems") @string(CGA = "IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications") @string(GMIP = "Graphical Models and Image Processing") @string(IJCV = "International Journal of Computer Vision") @string(IJPRAI = "International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence") @string(IJRR = "International Journal of Robotics Research") @string(IPL = "Information Processing Letters") @string(IS = "Information Sciences") @string(ISA = "Information Sciences Applications") @string(IU = "Image Understanding") @string(IVC = "Image and Vision Computing") @string(JCSS = "Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences") @string(JMIV = "Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision") @string(JPDC = "Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing") @string(JVCIR = "Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation") @string(MVA = "Machine Vision and Applications") @string(P-IEEE = "Proceedings of the IEEE") @string(PR = "Pattern Recognition") @string(PRL = "Pattern Recognition Letters SIAM") @string(JC = "SIAM Journal on Computing") @string(SV = "Spatial Vision") @string(TCS = "Theoretical Computer Science") @string(T-IP = "IEEE Transactions on Image Processing") @string(T-I&S = "IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems") @string(TOG = "ACM Transactions on Graphics") @string(T-PAMI = "IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence") @string(T-PDS = "IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems") @string(T-RA = "IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation") @string(T-SMC = "IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics") @string(VC = "The Visual Computer")
Spatial Vision In Humans And Robots (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 19-22, 1991), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
UK, 1993. BibRef
Shape In Picture: Mathematical Description Of Shape In Grey-Level Images (Proceedings Of The Nato Advanced Research Workshop ``Shape In Picture'', Driebergen, The Netherlands, September 7-11, 1992), Springer,
BERLIN, 1994. BibRef
Progress In Image Analysis And Processing Iii (Proceedings Of The 7th International Conference On Image Analysis And Processing, Monopoli, Italy, September 20-22, 1993), World Scientific,
SINGAPORE, 1994. BibRef
22nd Aipr Workshop: Interdisciplinary Computer Vision-Applications And Changing Needs (Washington, Dc, October 14-16,
1993), Proc. SPIE 2103. BibRef
Image And Video Processing Ii (San Jose, Ca, February 7-9,
1994), Proc. SPIE 2182. BibRef
6th Workshop On Theoretical Foundations Of Computer Vision, Wadern, Germany,
MARCH 14-18, 1994.
Adaptive Computing: Mathematics, Electronics, And Optics (Orlando, Fl, April 4-5,
1994), Proc. SPIE CR55. BibRef
Ieee Southwest Symposium On Image Analysis And Interpretation, Dallas, Tx,
APRIL 21-22, 1994.
Computer Vision-Eccv '94 (Third European Conference On Computer Vision, Stockholm, Sweden, May 2-6, 1994), Springer,
BERLIN, 1994. BibRef
Third Conference On Computer Graphics And Image Processing, Gkpo '94, Spala, Poland, May 16-20,
1994 (MACHINE GRAPHICS AND VISION 3 (1-2), 1994).
Proceedings, Vision Interface '94 (Banff, Alberta, Canada, May 18-20, 1994), Canadian Image Processing And Pattern Recognition Society, Toronto, Ontario,
Sanniti di Baja, G.,
Aspects Of Visual Form Processing (Second International Workshop On Visual Form, Capri, Italy, May 30-June 2, 1994), World Scientific,
SINGAPORE, 1995. BibRef
Pattern Recognition In Practice Iv: Multiple Paradigms, Comparative Studies And Hybrid Systems (Vlieland, The Netherlands, June 1-3, 1994), Elsevier,
AMSTERDAM, 1994. BibRef
Proceedings Of The Workshop On Visual Behaviors (Seattle, Wa, June 19, 1994), Ieee Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos,
Proceedings, Cvpr '94, Ieee Computer Society Conference On Computer Vision And Pattern Recognition (Seattle, Wa, June 21-23, 1994), Ieee Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos,
Workshop On Visualization And Machine Vision, Seattle, Wa,
JUNE 24, 1994.
Workshop On Performance Versus Methodology In Computer Vision, Seattle, Wa,
JUNE 24-25, 1994.
Applications Of Digital Image Processing Xvii (San Diego, Ca, July 26-29,
1994), Proc. SPIE 2298. BibRef
Neural And Stochastic Methods In Image And Signal Processing Iii (San Diego, Ca, July 28-29,
1994), Proc. SPIE 2304. BibRef
Fifth British Machine Vision Conference, York, Uk,
SEPTEMBER 13-16, 1994.
Pattern Recognition 1994: Recognizing And Learning, 16th Dagm Symposium And 18th Oeagm Workshop, Vienna, Austria,
SEPTEMBER 21-23, 1994.
Ieee International Conference On Multisensor Fusion And Integration For Intelligent Systems, Las Vegas, Nv,
OCTOBER 2-5, 1994.
Proceedings, 12th Iapr International Conference On Pattern Recognition (Jerusalem, Israel, October 9-13, 1994), Ieee Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos,
23rd Aipr Workshop: Image And Information Systems: Applications And Opportunities (Washington, Dc, October 12-14,
1994), Proc. SPIE 2368. BibRef
Telemanipulator And Telepresence Technologies (Boston, Ma, October 31-November 1,
1994), Proc. SPIE 2351. BibRef
Intelligent Robots And Computer Vision Xiii: Algorithms And Computer Vision (Boston, Ma, October 31-November 2,
1994), Proc. SPIE 2353. BibRef
Intelligent Robots And Computer Vision Xiii: 3d Vision, Product Inspection And Active Vision (Boston, Ma, November 2-4,
1994), Proc. SPIE 2354. BibRef
Sensor Fusion Vii (Boston, Ma, October 31-November 1,
1994), Proc. SPIE 2355. BibRef
Icarcv '94, Third International Conference On Automation, Robotics, And Computer Vision, Singapore,
NOVEMBER 8-11, 1994.
Proceedings, [Arpa] Image Understanding Workshop (Monterey, Ca, November 13-16, 1994), Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco,
Proceedings, Icip '94, First Ieee International Conference On Image Processing (Austin, Tx, November 13-16, 1994), Ieee Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos,
Wacv, Second Ieee Workshop On Applications Of Computer Vision, Sarasota, Fl,
DECEMBER 5-7, 1994.
Mva '94, Iapr Workshop On Machine Vision Applications, Kawasaki, Japan,
DECEMBER 13-15, 1994.
Chapter on Rosenfeld Bibliography for 1994 continues in
A.2. Books, etc. .