24.4.12 Wind and Waves, Sea Surface Effects

Chapter Contents (Back)
Waves. Wind. Sea Surface.
See also Wind Sensing, Wind Speed, Radar, SAR, Wind from Sensors.
See also Waves, Ocean Waves, Wave Heights, Sea Surface Effects.

Pinel, N., Chapron, B., Bourlier, C., de Beaucoudrey, N., Garello, R., Ghaleb, A.,
Statistical Analysis of Real Aperture Radar Field Backscattered From Sea Surfaces Under Moderate Winds by Monte Carlo Simulations,
GeoRS(52), No. 10, October 2014, pp. 6459-6470.
Correlation BibRef

Lipa, B.[Belinda], Barrick, D.[Donald], Alonso-Martirena, A.[Andres], Fernandes, M.[Maria], Ferrer, M.I.[Maria Inmaculada], Nyden, B.[Bruce],
Brahan Project High Frequency Radar Ocean Measurements: Currents, Winds, Waves and Their Interactions,
RS(6), No. 12, 2014, pp. 12094-12117.
DOI Link 1412

Huang, W.M.[Wei-Min], Liu, X.L.[Xin-Long], Gill, E.W.[Eric W.],
Ocean Wind and Wave Measurements Using X-Band Marine Radar: A Comprehensive Review,
RS(9), No. 12, 2017, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 1802
Survey, Wind Measurement.
See also Experimental Investigation of Ocean Wave Measurement Using Short-Range K-Band Radar: Dock-Based and Boat-Based Wind Wave Measurements. BibRef

Li, X.Z.[Xiu-Zhong], Zhang, B.[Biao], Mouche, A.[Alexis], He, Y.J.[Yi-Jun], Perrie, W.[William],
Ku-Band Sea Surface Radar Backscatter at Low Incidence Angles under Extreme Wind Conditions,
RS(9), No. 5, 2017, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 1706

Huang, L.Q.[Lan-Qing], Liu, B.[Bin], Li, X.F.[Xiao-Feng], Zhang, Z.H.[Zeng-Hui], Yu, W.X.[Wen-Xian],
Technical Evaluation of Sentinel-1 IW Mode Cross-Pol Radar Backscattering from the Ocean Surface in Moderate Wind Condition,
RS(9), No. 8, 2017, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 1708

Li, C., Wu, X., Yue, X., Zhang, L., Liu, J., Li, M., Zhou, H., Wan, B.,
Extraction of Wind Direction Spreading Factor From Broad-Beam High-Frequency Surface Wave Radar Data,
GeoRS(55), No. 9, September 2017, pp. 5123-5133.
atmospheric measuring apparatus, amplitude estimation, broad-beam high-frequency surface wave radar data, wind direction spreading factor extraction, wind speed, Sea surface, Surface waves multiple signal classification (MUSIC), spreading factor, BibRef

Sad, F., Johnsen, H., Nouguier, F., Chapron, B., Engen, G.,
Onto a Skewness Approach to the Generalized Curvature Ocean Surface Scattering Model,
GeoRS(55), No. 10, October 2017, pp. 5843-5853.
ocean waves, wind conditions, BibRef

Mouche, A.A., Chapron, B., Zhang, B., Husson, R.,
Combined Co- and Cross-Polarized SAR Measurements Under Extreme Wind Conditions,
GeoRS(55), No. 12, December 2017, pp. 6746-6755.
Hurricanes, Satellites, Sea measurements, Sea surface, Synthetic aperture radar, Wind speed, typhoon BibRef

Comite, D., Pierdicca, N.,
Bistatic Radar Systems at Large Baselines for Ocean Observation,
GeoRS(56), No. 3, March 2018, pp. 1816-1828.
radar cross-sections, remote sensing by radar, synthetic aperture radar, wind, wind-field estimation BibRef

Voronovich, A.G., Zavorotny, V.U.,
Bistatic Radar Equation for Signals of Opportunity Revisited,
GeoRS(56), No. 4, April 2018, pp. 1959-1968.
Bistatic radar, Mathematical model, Optical surface waves, Rough surfaces, Scattering, Sea surface, Surface roughness, wind BibRef

Cui, J.[Jian], Bachmayer, R.[Ralf], de Young, B.[Brad], Huang, W.M.[Wei-Min],
Ocean Wave Measurement Using Short-Range K-Band Narrow Beam Continuous Wave Radar,
RS(10), No. 8, 2018, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 1809

Kudryavtsev, V.N., Fan, S., Zhang, B., Mouche, A.A., Chapron, B.,
On Quad-Polarized SAR Measurements of the Ocean Surface,
GeoRS(57), No. 11, November 2019, pp. 8362-8370.
Sea measurements, Synthetic aperture radar, Sea surface, Wind speed, Rough surfaces, Bragg and nonresonant scattering, wave breaking BibRef

Cui, J.[Jian], Bachmayer, R.[Ralf], de Young, B.[Brad], Huang, W.M.[Wei-Min],
Experimental Investigation of Ocean Wave Measurement Using Short-Range K-Band Radar: Dock-Based and Boat-Based Wind Wave Measurements,
RS(11), No. 13, 2019, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 1907

See also Ocean Wind and Wave Measurements Using X-Band Marine Radar: A Comprehensive Review. BibRef

Zhang, L.[Lei], Liu, G.Q.[Guo-Qiang], Perrie, W.[William], He, Y.J.[Yi-Jun], Zhang, G.S.[Guo-Sheng],
Typhoon/Hurricane-Generated Wind Waves Inferred from SAR Imagery,
RS(10), No. 10, 2018, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 1811

Titchenko, Y., Karaev, V.,
The Algorithm for Retrieving the Surface Waves Parameters Using Doppler Spectrum Measurements at Small Incident Angles,
GeoRS(57), No. 2, February 2019, pp. 936-943.
Sea surface, Sea measurements, Surface waves, Scattering, Backscatter, Wind speed, Radar measurements, Acoustic scattering, sea surface BibRef

Lin, W.M.[Wen-Ming], Dong, X.L.[Xiao-Long], Portabella, M.[Marcos], Lang, S.Y.[Shu-Yan], He, Y.J.[Yi-Jun], Yun, R.S.[Ri-Sheng], Wang, Z.X.[Zhi-Xiong], Xu, X.O.[Xing-Ou], Zhu, D.[Di], Liu, J.I.[Jianq-Iang],
A Perspective on the Performance of the CFOSAT Rotating Fan-Beam Scatterometer,
GeoRS(57), No. 2, February 2019, pp. 627-639.
China-France Oceanography Satellite (CFOSAT) Spaceborne radar, Radar measurements, Azimuth, Instruments, Backscatter, Satellites, Backscatter, inversion, measurement errors, wind BibRef

Pires, N., Fernandes, M.J., Gommenginger, C., Scharroo, R.,
Improved Sea State Bias Estimation for Altimeter Reference Missions With Altimeter-Only Three-Parameter Models,
GeoRS(57), No. 3, March 2019, pp. 1448-1462.
altimeters, ocean waves, oceanographic techniques, sea level, wind, mediator parameter, mean wave period, sea state bias (SSB) BibRef

Sergievskaya, I.A.[Irina A.], Ermakov, S.A.[Stanislav A.], Ermoshkin, A.V.[Alexey V.], Kapustin, I.A.[Ivan A.], Molkov, A.A.[Alexander A.], Danilicheva, O.A.[Olga A.], Shomina, O.V.[Olga V.],
Modulation of Dual-Polarized X-Band Radar Backscatter Due to Long Wind Waves,
RS(11), No. 4, 2019, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 1903

Grieco, G., Stoffelen, A., Portabella, M., Rivas, M.B.[M. Belmonte], Lin, W., Fabra, F.,
Quality Control of Delay-Doppler Maps for Stare Processing,
GeoRS(57), No. 5, May 2019, pp. 2990-3000.
atmospheric techniques, Doppler radar, ocean waves, oceanographic techniques, quality control, satellite navigation, wind BibRef

Hwang, P.A.,
Surface Foam and L-Band Microwave Radiometer Measurements in High Winds,
GeoRS(57), No. 5, May 2019, pp. 2766-2776.
microwave measurement, oceanographic techniques, radiometers, radiometry, remote sensing, remote sensing by radar, wind, whitecaps BibRef

Migliaccio, M., Huang, L., Buono, A.,
SAR Speckle Dependence on Ocean Surface Wind Field,
GeoRS(57), No. 8, August 2019, pp. 5447-5455.
oceanographic techniques, synthetic aperture radar, wind, SAR speckle dependence, ocean surface wind field, wind speed BibRef

Xie, D., Chen, K., Yang, X.,
Effects of Wind Wave Spectra on Radar Backscatter From Sea Surface at Different Microwave Bands: A Numerical Study,
GeoRS(57), No. 9, September 2019, pp. 6325-6334.
Sea surface, Surface waves, Radar, Computational modeling, Scattering, Data models, Microwave ocean remote sensing, radar frequency BibRef

Lu, G., Tsai, W., Jhne, B.,
Decomposing Infrared Images of Wind Waves for Quantitative Separation Into Characteristic Flow Processes,
GeoRS(57), No. 10, October 2019, pp. 8304-8316.
Surface waves, Surface treatment, Rough surfaces, Surface roughness, Image processing, Gravity, Sea surface, wind waves BibRef

Panfilova, M., Ryabkova, M., Karaev, V., Skiba, E.,
Retrieval of the Statistical Characteristics of Wind Waves From the Width and Shift of the Doppler Spectrum of the Backscattered Microwave Signal at Low Incidence Angles,
GeoRS(58), No. 3, March 2020, pp. 2225-2231.
Microwave signal, retrieval algorithm, statistical parameters of sea waves, width and shift of Doppler spectrum (DS) BibRef

Kelberlau, F.[Felix], Neshaug, V.[Vegar], Lnseth, L.[Lasse], Bracchi, T.[Tania], Mann, J.[Jakob],
Taking the Motion out of Floating LIDAR: Turbulence Intensity Estimates with a Continuous-Wave Wind Lidar,
RS(12), No. 5, 2020, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2003

Yang, J.G.[Jun-Gang], Zhang, J.[Jie], Jia, Y.J.[Yong-Jun], Fan, C.Q.[Chen-Qing], Cui, W.[Wei],
Validation of Sentinel-3A/3B and Jason-3 Altimeter Wind Speeds and Significant Wave Heights Using Buoy and ASCAT Data,
RS(12), No. 13, 2020, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2007

Hwang, P.A., Ainsworth, T.L.,
L-Band Ocean Surface Roughness,
GeoRS(58), No. 6, June 2020, pp. 3988-3999.
Hurricane, remote sensing, wave height, wave period, wind speed BibRef

Wang, Y.T.[Yan-Ting], Ainsworth, T.L.[Thomas L.],
A Geometry-Compensated Sensitivity Study of Polarimetric Bistatic Scattering for Rough Surface Observation,
RS(16), No. 10, 2024, pp. 1807.
DOI Link 2405

Wang, J.[Jiuke], Aouf, L.[Lotfi], Jia, Y.J.[Yong-Jun], Zhang, Y.G.[You-Guang],
Validation and Calibration of Significant Wave Height and Wind Speed Retrievals from HY2B Altimeter Based on Deep Learning,
RS(12), No. 17, 2020, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2009

Ermakov, S.A.[Stanislav A.], Dobrokhotov, V.A.[Vladimir A.], Sergievskaya, I.A.[Irina A.], Kapustin, I.A.[Ivan A.],
Suppression of Wind Ripples and Microwave Backscattering Due to Turbulence Generated by Breaking Surface Waves,
RS(12), No. 21, 2020, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2011

Sergievskaya, I.A.[Irina A.], Ermakov, S.A.[Stanislav A.], Ermoshkin, A.V.[Aleksey V.], Kapustin, I.A.[Ivan A.], Shomina, O.V.[Olga V.], Kupaev, A.V.[Alexander V.],
The Role of Micro Breaking of Small-Scale Wind Waves in Radar Backscattering from Sea Surface,
RS(12), No. 24, 2020, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2012

Li, X.[Xinba], Mitsopoulos, P.[Panagiotis], Yin, Y.[Yue], Pea, M.[Malaquias],
SARAL-AltiKa Wind and Significant Wave Height for Offshore Wind Energy Applications in the New England Region,
RS(13), No. 1, 2021, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2101

Hwang, P.A.,
Deriving L-Band Tilting Ocean Surface Roughness From Measurements by Operational Systems,
GeoRS(59), No. 2, February 2021, pp. 940-949.
Sea surface, Surface waves, Rough surfaces, Surface roughness, Sea measurements, Wind speed, Dominant wave period (DWP), wind speed BibRef

Almar, R.[Rafael], Bergsma, E.W.J.[Erwin W. J.], Catalan, P.A.[Patricio A.], Cienfuegos, R.[Rodrigo], Suarez, L.[Leandro], Lucero, F.[Felipe], Lerma, A.N.[Alexandre Nicolae], Desmazes, F.[Franck], Perugini, E.[Eleonora], Palmsten, M.L.[Margaret L.], Chickadel, C.[Chris],
Sea State from Single Optical Images: A Methodology to Derive Wind-Generated Ocean Waves from Cameras, Drones and Satellites,
RS(13), No. 4, 2021, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2103
And: Correction: RS(14), No. 13, 2022, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2208

Du, Y., Yang, X., Yang, J., Tan, S., Ma, W., Li, Z., Li, X.,
Effects of Temperature on Sea Surface Radar Backscattering Under Neutral and Nonneutral Atmospheric Conditions for Wind Retrieval Applications: A Numerical Study,
GeoRS(59), No. 4, April 2021, pp. 2727-2743.
Ocean temperature, Atmospheric modeling, Sea surface, Scattering, Spaceborne radar, Wind speed, Atmospheric stability, sea surface temperature (SST) BibRef

Ermakov, S.A.[Stanislav A.], Sergievskaya, I.A.[Irina A.], Kapustin, I.A.[Ivan A.],
Strong Modulation of Short Wind Waves and Ka-Band Radar Return Due to Internal Waves in the Presence of Surface Films. Theory and Experiment,
RS(13), No. 13, 2021, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2107

Dulov, V.A.[Vladimir A.], Korinenko, A.E.[Aleksandr E.], Kudryavtsev, V.N.[Vladimir N.], Malinovsky, V.V.[Vladimir V.],
Modulation of Wind-Wave Breaking by Long Surface Waves,
RS(13), No. 14, 2021, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2107

Ruf, C.S.[Christopher S.],
Improved CYGNSS Wind Speed Retrieval Using Significant Wave Height Correction,
RS(13), No. 21, 2021, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2112

Wu, Y.Q.[Yu-Qi], Fan, C.Q.[Chen-Qing], Yan, Q.S.[Qiu-Shuang], Meng, J.M.[Jun-Min], Song, T.R.[Tian-Ran], Zhang, J.[Jie],
Effects of Wind Wave Spectra, Non-Gaussianity, and Swell on the Prediction of Ocean Microwave Backscatter with Facet Two-Scale Model,
RS(15), No. 5, 2023, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2303

Campos, R.M.[Ricardo M.],
Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Criteria for Altimeter Collocation of Significant Wave Height and Wind Speed Data in Deep Waters,
RS(15), No. 8, 2023, pp. 2203.
DOI Link 2305

Guo, J.[Jinyun], Zhang, H.Y.[Hui-Ying], Li, Z.[Zhen], Zhu, C.C.[Cheng-Cheng], Liu, X.[Xin],
On Modelling Sea State Bias of Jason-2 Altimeter Data Based on Significant Wave Heights and Wind Speeds,
RS(15), No. 10, 2023, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2306

Dsert, T.[Thibault], Knapp, G.[Graham], Aubrun, S.[Sandrine],
Quantification and Correction of Wave-Induced Turbulence Intensity Bias for a Floating LIDAR System,
RS(13), No. 15, 2021, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2108
Used to survey wind energy off-shore. BibRef

Yurovsky, Y.Y.[Yury Y.], Kudryavtsev, V.N.[Vladimir N.], Grodsky, S.A.[Semyon A.], Chapron, B.[Bertrand],
Ka-Band Radar Cross-Section of Breaking Wind Waves,
RS(13), No. 10, 2021, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2105

Li, G.[Guo], Zhang, Y.[Yunhua], Dong, X.[Xiao],
Approaches for Joint Retrieval of Wind Speed and Significant Wave Height and Further Improvement for Tiangong-2 Interferometric Imaging Radar Altimeter,
RS(14), No. 8, 2022, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2205

Zhou, L.Z.[Li-Zhang], Zheng, G.[Gang], Yang, J.S.[Jing-Song], Li, X.F.[Xiao-Feng], Zhang, B.[Bin], Wang, H.[He], Chen, P.[Peng], Wang, Y.[Yan],
Sea Surface Wind Speed Retrieval From Textures in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery,
GeoRS(60), 2022, pp. 1-11.
Radar polarimetry, Sea surface, Oceanography, Atmospheric modeling, Surface waves, Atmospheric waves, Wind speed, Entropy, textures BibRef

Wan, Y.[Yong], Zhang, X.N.[Xiao-Na], Fan, C.Q.[Chen-Qing], Qu, R.Z.[Ruo-Zhao], Ma, E.[Ennan],
A Joint Method for Wave and Wind Field Parameter Inversion Combining SAR with Wave Spectrometer Data,
RS(14), No. 15, 2022, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2208

Mitsopoulos, P.[Panagiotis], Pea, M.[Malaquias],
Characterizing Coastal Wind Speed and Significant Wave Height Using Satellite Altimetry and Buoy Data,
RS(15), No. 4, 2023, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2303

Bu, J.[Jinwei], Yu, K.[Kegen], Zhu, F.[Feiyang], Zuo, X.Q.[Xiao-Qing], Huang, W.M.[Wei-Min],
Joint Retrieval of Sea Surface Rainfall Intensity, Wind Speed, and Wave Height Based on Spaceborne GNSS-R: A Case Study of the Oceans Near China,
RS(15), No. 11, 2023, pp. 2757.
DOI Link 2306

Hu, Y.N.[Ya-Ning], Ma, L.W.[Li-Wen], Zhang, Y.S.[Yu-Shi], Wu, Z.S.[Zhen-Sen], Wu, J.J.[Jia-Ji], Zhang, J.P.[Jin-Peng], Zhang, X.X.[Xiao-Xiao],
Research on High-Resolution Reconstruction of Marine Environmental Parameters Using Deep Learning Model,
RS(15), No. 13, 2023, pp. 3419.
DOI Link 2307
Wind and waves. BibRef

Heg, P.[Per], Carlstrm, A.[Anders],
Sea Surface Roughness Determination from Grazing Angle GPS Ocean Observations and Scatterometry Simulations,
RS(15), No. 15, 2023, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 2308

Zhang, Y.Y.[Yu-Ying], Lu, Z.Z.[Zhi-Zhong], Tian, C.Y.[Cong-Ying], Wei, Y.B.[Yan-Bo], Liu, F.M.[Fan-Ming],
A Method for Estimating Ship Surface Wind Parameters by Combining Anemometer and X-Band Marine Radar Data,
RS(15), No. 22, 2023, pp. 5392.
DOI Link 2311

Naeije, M.[Marc], di Bella, A.[Alessandro], Geminale, T.[Teresa], Visser, P.[Pieter],
CryoSat Long-Term Ocean Data Analysis and Validation: Final Words on GOP Baseline-C,
RS(15), No. 22, 2023, pp. 5420.
DOI Link 2311

Wang, R.[Rong], Lyu, Z.[Zhe], Yu, C.J.[Chang-Jun], Liu, A.[Aijun], Quan, T.[Taifan],
Joint Analysis and Morphological Characterization of HFSWR Echo Properties during Severe Typhoon Muifa,
RS(16), No. 2, 2024, pp. 267.
DOI Link 2402
High-frequency surface wave radar. BibRef

Jacobs, R.[Robert], O'Neill, L.W.[Larry W.],
Co-Variability between the Surface Wind Divergence and Vorticity over the Ocean,
RS(16), No. 3, 2024, pp. 451.
DOI Link 2402

Sallam, O.[Omar], Feng, R.[Rihui], Stason, J.[Jack], Wang, X.G.[Xin-Guo], Frth, M.[Mirjam],
Stereo vision based systems for sea-state measurement and floating structures monitoring,
SP:IC(122), 2024, pp. 117088.
Elsevier DOI 2402
Heaving buoy, Stereo vision, Visual-SLAM, Feature tracking, Edge detection, Wavelet Directional Method (WDM) BibRef

Li, H.[Hang], Liu, W.K.[Wen-Kang], Sun, G.C.[Guang-Cai], Chen, C.H.[Chang-Hong], Xing, M.D.[Meng-Dao], Zhang, Z.H.[Zhen-Hua], Zhang, J.[Jie],
Concept of Spaceborne Ocean Microwave Dual-Function Integrated Sensor for Wind and Wave Measurement,
RS(16), No. 8, 2024, pp. 1472.
DOI Link 2405

Recchia, L.[Lisa], Guccione, P.[Pietro], Moreau, T.[Thomas], Donlon, C.[Craig],
Utilizing the Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich Equivalent Number of Looks for Sea State Applications,
RS(16), No. 11, 2024, pp. 1866.
DOI Link 2406

Netto, G.M., Fernandes, L.A.F.,
Water surface reconstruction and truly random numbers generation from images of wind-generated gravity waves,
entropy, geophysical image processing, gravity waves, image reconstruction, ocean waves, random number generation, wind, water surface reconstruction BibRef

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