*Bhanu, B.*, and
*Ming, J.*,

**Recognition of Occluded Objects: A Cluster-Structure Algorithm**,

*PR(20)*, No. 2, 1987, pp. 199-211.

WWW Link. Improve on the technique of Price above by applying a clustering
technique to limit the set of possible matches.
BibRef
**8700**

*Liu, H.C.*, and
*Srinath, M.D.*,

**Partial Shape Classification
Using Contour Matching in Distance Transformation**,

*PAMI(12)*, No. 11, November 1990, pp. 1072-1079.

IEEE DOI Chamfer matching of contours using control points (corners).
(
See also Distance Transformations in Digital Images. )
BibRef
**9011**

*Liu, H.C.*,
*Srinath, M.D.*,

**A String Descriptor for Matching Partial Shapes**,

*CVIP92*(575-592).
BibRef
**9200**

*Hwang, V.*,

**Recognizing and Locating Partially Occluded 2-D Objects:
Symbolic Clustering Method**,

*SMC(19)*, No. 6, Nov/Dec 1989, pp. 1644-1656.
BibRef
**8911**

Earlier:

**Recognition of Two-Dimensional Objects
Using Hypothesis Integration Techniques**,

*CVWS87*(106-111).
*Recognize Two-Dimensional Objects*. This is similar to other methods.
BibRef

*Bhanu, B.[Bir]*, and
*Faugeras, O.D.[Olivier D.]*,

**Shape Matching of Two-Dimensional Objects**,

*PAMI(6)*, No. 2, March 1984, pp. 137-155.
BibRef
**8403**

Earlier: A1 Only:

**Recognition of Occluded Objects**,

*IJCAI83*(1136-1138).
BibRef

Earlier: A1, A2:

**Recognition of Occluded Two Dimensional Objects**,

*SCIA81*(72-77).
*Recognize Two-Dimensional Objects*.
*Relaxation*. Segment matching and relaxation using occluded objects from his
thesis, matching the occluded parts using segments as the basis.
BibRef

*Horaud, R.*, and
*Skordas, T.*,

**Model-Based Strategy Planning for Recognizing Partially Occluded
Parts**,

*Computer(20)*, No. 8, August 1987, pp. 58-65.
BibRef
**8708**

Earlier: A2, A1:

**Planning A Strategy for Recognizing Partially Occluded Parts**,

*ICPR86*(1080-1083).
*Recognize Two-Dimensional Objects*. A search strategy based on what to look for is generated based on
the distinguishing features of the given object. The system
determines the correct orientation for the single type of part (top
and bottom may be different).
BibRef

*Rutkowski, W.S.*,

**Shape Completion**,

*CGIP(9)*, No. 1, 1979, pp. 89-101.

WWW Link.
BibRef
**7900**

*Rutkowski, W.S.*,

**Recognition of Occluded Shapes Using Relaxation**,

*CGIP(19)*, No. 2, June 1982, pp. 111-128.

WWW Link.
*Recognize Two-Dimensional Objects*.
*Relaxation*. The description is based on selecting high curvature points and
extending to sample points a fixed distance on either side. If
necessary straight (or slightly curved) segments are used to connect
these end points. Because feature values are used in the relaxation
step no initial assignments are made.
BibRef
**8206**

*Koch, M.W.*, and
*Kashyap, R.L.*,

**Using Polygons to Recognize and Locate Partially Occluded Objects**,

*PAMI(9)*, No. 4, July 1987, pp. 483-494.
BibRef
**8707**

Earlier: A2, A1:

**Computer Vision Algorithms Used in Recognition of Occluded Objects**,

*CAIA84*(150-155).
*Recognize Two-Dimensional Objects*. This one hurts. Polygon means linear segment representation of the
boundary. It uses clusters of matches to find the best rotation and
translation for the match. It is too much of a copy for me.
BibRef

*Ansari, N.*, and
*Delp, E.J.*,

**Partial Shape Recognition: A Landmark-Based Approach**,

*PAMI(12)*, No. 5, May 1990, pp. 470-483.

IEEE DOI
BibRef
**9005**

Earlier:

**A Note on Two-Dimensional Landmark-Based Object Recognition**,

*CVPR86*(622-624).
Shape matching based on landmarks (important features) using a
dynamic programming approach.
BibRef

*Ansari, N.*,

**Shape Recognition: A Landmark-Based Approach**,

*Purdue*TR-EE-88-31, July 1988,
BibRef
**8807**
*Ph.D.*Thesis (EE).
The thesis form of the above paper.
BibRef

*Ansari, N.*,
*Li, K.*,

**Landmark-Based Shape Recognition by a Modified Hopfield Neural
Network**,

*PR(26)*, No. 4, April 1993, pp. 531-542.

WWW Link. Uses a three point based shape measure and major curvature points
on the contour to match rotated and scaled and partially occluded
objects to models. Requires 4 landmark points (corners) to appear
in the scene.
BibRef
**9304**

*Ullmann, J.R.*,

**Analysis of 2-D Occlusion by Subtracting Out**,

*PAMI(14)*, No. 4, April 1992, pp. 485-489.

IEEE DOI Matching and analysis of occlusions.
One-D occlusion:
See also Investigation of Occlusion in One Dimension, An.
BibRef
**9204**

*Ullmann, J.R.*,

**Edge Replacement in the Recognition of Occluded Objects**,

*PR(26)*, No. 12, December 1993, pp. 1771-1784.

WWW Link.
BibRef
**9312**

*Tsai, D.M.*,
*Tsai, R.Y.*,

**Use Neural Networks to Determine Matching Order for
Recognizing Overlapping Objects**,

*PRL(17)*, No. 10, September 2 1996, pp. 1077-1088.
*Neural Networks*.
*Hough Transform*.
BibRef
**9609**

*Han, M.H.*,
*Jang, D.*,

**The Use of Maximum Curvature Points for the Recognition of
Partially Occluded Objects**,

*PR(23)*, No. 1-2, 1990, pp. 21-33.

WWW Link.
BibRef
**9000**

*Salari, E.*,
*Balaji, S.*,

**Recognition of Partially Occluded Objects Using B-Spline Representation**,

*PR(24)*, No. 7, 1991, pp. 653-660.

WWW Link.
BibRef
**9100**

*Pikaz, A.*,
*Dinstein, I.H.*,

**Matching of Partially Occluded Planar Curves**,

*PR(28)*, No. 2, February 1995, pp. 199-209.

WWW Link.
BibRef
**9502**

*Dinstein, I.*, and
*Silberberg, T.*,

**Shape Discrimination with Walsh Descriptors**,

*ICPR80*(1055-1061).
BibRef
**8000**

*Kim, J.H.*,
*Yoon, S.H.*,
*Sohn, K.H.*,

**A Robust Boundary-Based Object Recognition in Occlusion Environment by
Hybrid Hopfield Neural Networks**,

*PR(29)*, No. 12, December 1996, pp. 2047-2060.

WWW Link.
**9701**

*Hopfield Networks*.
BibRef

*Illing, D.P.*,
*Fairney, P.T.*,

**Reconstructing Partially Occluded Object Boundaries**,

*PRL(12)*, 1991, pp. 31-38.
BibRef
**9100**

*Illing, D.P.*,
*Fairney, P.T.*,
*Wiltshire, R.J.*,

**3-D object recognition and orientation from both noisy and occluded 2-D
data**,

*BMVC90*(xx-yy).

PDF File.
**9009**

BibRef

*Koch, M.W.*,
*Kashyap, R.L.*,

**Matching Polygon Fragments**,

*PRL(10)*, 1989, pp. 297-308.
BibRef
**8900**

*Ray, K.S.*,
*Dutta Majumder, D.*,

**Application of Differential Geometry to Recognize and
Locate Partially Occluded Objects**,

*PRL(9)*, 1989, pp. 351-360.
See also Recognition and Positioning of Partially Occluded 3-D Objects.
BibRef
**8900**

*Ray, K.S.*,
*Majumder, D.D.*,

**Application of Hopfield Neural Networks and Canonical Perspectives
to Recognize and Locate Partially Occluded 3-D Objects**,

*PRL(15)*, No. 8, August 1994, pp. 815-824.
BibRef
**9408**

*Chen, J.M.*,
*Ventura, J.A.*,

**Optimization Models for Shape-Matching of Nonconvex Polygons**,

*PR(28)*, No. 6, June 1995, pp. 863-877.

WWW Link.
See also Optimization Algorithm for Shape Analysis of Regular Polygons, An.
BibRef
**9506**

*Ventura, J.A.*,
*Chen, J.M.*,

**A Structural Model For Shape-Recognition Using Neural Nets**,

*JIM(7)*, No. 1, February 1996, pp. 1-11.
BibRef
**9602**

*Gewali, L.P.*,

**Recognizing S-Star Polygons**,

*PR(28)*, No. 7, July 1995, pp. 1019-1032.

WWW Link.
BibRef
**9507**

*Tsang, P.W.M.*,

**A Genetic Algorithm for Aligning Object Shapes**,

*IVC(15)*, No. 11, November 1997, pp. 819-831.

WWW Link.
**9712**

BibRef

*Tsang, P.W.M.*,

**A Genetic Algorithm for Affine Invariant Recognition of
Object Shapes from Broken Boundaries**,

*PRL(18)*, No. 7, July 1997, pp. 631-639.
**9711**

BibRef

*Tsang, P.W.M.*,
*Yu, Z.*,

**Genetic algorithm for model-based matching of projected images of
three-dimensional objects**,

*VISP(150)*, No. 6, December 2003, pp. 351-359.

IEEE Abstract.
**0402**

BibRef

*Park, J.S.*,
*Han, J.H.*,

**Contour Matching: A Curvature-Based Approach**,

*IVC(16)*, No. 3, March 16 1998, pp. 181-189.

WWW Link.
**9804**

See also Estimating Optical Flow by Tracking Contours.
BibRef

*Han, J.H.*,
*Park, J.S.*,

**Contour Matching Using Epipolar Geometry**,

*PAMI(22)*, No. 4, April 2000, pp. 358-370.

IEEE DOI
**0006**

Using the epipolar constraint in matching through a sequence
helps eliminate mis-matches.
BibRef

*Kupeev, K.Y.*,
*Brailovsky, V.L.*,

**A Reinforced Random Algorithm for a
Partial Contour Perceptual Similarity Problem**,

*PRL(19)*, No. 3-4, March 1998, pp. 287-297.

PS File.
**9807**

BibRef

*Bunke, H.[Horst]*,
*Zumbuhl, M.[Marcel]*,

**Acquisition of 2D Shape Models from Scenes with Overlapping Objects
using String matching**,

*PAA(2)*, No. 1, 1999, pp. 2-9.
BibRef
**9900**

*Bunke, H.*,
*Kaufmann, G.*,

**Jigsaw puzzle solving using approximate string matching and best-first
search**,

*CAIP93*(299-308).

Springer DOI
**9309**

BibRef

*Saber, E.[Eli]*,
*Xu, Y.W.[Yao-Wu]*,
*Tekalp, A.M.[A. Murat]*,

**Partial shape recognition by sub-matrix matching for partial matching
guided image labeling**,

*PR(38)*, No. 10, October 2005, pp. 1560-1573.

WWW Link.
**0508**

BibRef

*Zhu, L.J.[Liang-Jia]*,
*Zhou, Z.T.[Zong-Tan]*,
*Hu, D.[Dewen]*,

**Globally Consistent Reconstruction of Ripped-Up Documents**,

*PAMI(30)*, No. 1, January 2008, pp. 1-13.

IEEE DOI
**0711**

First curve matching, then disambiguate using relaxation process.
BibRef

*Tsang, P.W.M.[Peter W.M.]*,
*Yuen, T.Y.F.[Terry Y.F.]*,

**Affine invariant matching of broken boundaries based on an enhanced
genetic algorithm and distance transform**,

*IET-CV(2)*, No. 3, September 2008, pp. 142-149.

DOI Link
**0905**

BibRef

*Tsang, P.W.M.*,
*Situ, W.C.*,

**Affine invariant matching of broken boundaries based on simple genetic
algorithm and contour reconstruction**,

*PRL(31)*, No. 9, 1 July 2010, pp. 771-780.

Elsevier DOI
**1004**

Affine invariant matching; Fragmented contours; Contour
reconstruction; Simple genetic algorithm; Migrant principle; Quality
migrants
BibRef

*Yuen, T.Y.F.[Terry Y.F.]*,
*Tsang, P.W.M.[Peter W.M.]*,

**Affine invariant matching of broken boundaries based on particle swarm
optimization**,

*IVC(26)*, No. 9, 1 September 2008, pp. 1230-1239.

WWW Link.
**0806**

Affine invariant matching; Broken boundary; Simple genetic algorithm;
Real coded genetic algorithm; Particle swarm optimization; Repeated trial
BibRef

*Lin, L.[Liang]*,
*Wang, X.L.[Xiao-Long]*,
*Yang, W.[Wei]*,
*Lai, J.H.[Jian-Huang]*,

**Discriminatively Trained And-Or Graph Models for Object Shape
Detection**,

*PAMI(37)*, No. 5, May 2015, pp. 959-972.

IEEE DOI
**1504**

BibRef

Earlier:

**Learning contour-fragment-based shape model with And-Or tree
representation**,

*CVPR12*(135-142).

IEEE DOI
**1208**

Collaboration
BibRef

*Guerrero-Peña, F.A.*,
*Vasconcelos, G.C.*,

**Object recognition under severe occlusions with a hidden Markov model
approach**,

*PRL(86)*, No. 1, 2017, pp. 68-75.

Elsevier DOI
**1702**

Severe occluded. Parts at high curvature points.
BibRef

DOI Link

BibRef

*Chang, L.[Leonardo]*,
*Arias-Estrada, M.[Miguel]*,
*Hernández-Palancar, J.[José]*,
*Sucar, L.E.[L. Enrique]*,

**Partial Shape Matching and Retrieval under Occlusion and Noise**,

*CIARP14*(151-158).

Springer DOI
**1411**

BibRef

*Pepikj, B.[Bojan]*,
*Stark, M.[Michael]*,
*Gehler, P.[Peter]*,
*Schiele, B.[Bernt]*,

**Occlusion Patterns for Object Class Detection**,

*CVPR13*(3286-3293)

IEEE DOI
**1309**

DPM; object detection; occlusion.
Occlusion is not noise, it is a feature.
BibRef

*Zhong, M.[Ming]*,
*Hou, T.B.[Ting-Bo]*,
*Hong, Q.[Qin]*,

**A hierarchical approach to high-quality partial shape registration**,

*ICPR12*(113-116).

WWW Link.
**1302**

BibRef

*Hou, T.B.[Ting-Bo]*,
*Zhong, M.[Ming]*,
*Qin, H.[Hong]*,

**Diffusion-driven high-order matching of partial deformable shapes**,

*ICPR12*(137-140).

WWW Link.
**1302**

BibRef

*Gallagher, A.C.[Andrew C.]*,

**Jigsaw puzzles with pieces of unknown orientation**,

*CVPR12*(382-389).

IEEE DOI
**1208**

BibRef

*Cao, Y.[Yu]*,
*Zhang, Z.[Zhiqi]*,
*Czogiel, I.[Irina]*,
*Dryden, I.[Ian]*,
*Wang, S.[Song]*,

**2D nonrigid partial shape matching using MCMC and contour subdivision**,

*CVPR11*(2345-2352).

IEEE DOI
**1106**

Contours
BibRef

*Chen, L.B.[Long-Bin]*,
*Feris, R.S.[Rogerio S.]*,
*Turk, M.A.[Matthew A.]*,

**Efficient partial shape matching using Smith-Waterman algorithm**,

*NORDIA08*(1-6).

IEEE DOI
**0806**

Contour matching.
BibRef

*Salberg, A.*,
*Harbitz, A.*,
*Hanssen, A.*,

**Shape classification of partially occluded objects using subspace
detectors**,

*ICIP04*(III: 2095-2098).

IEEE DOI
**0505**

BibRef

*Marcenaro, L.*,
*Gandetto, M.*,
*Regazzoni, C.S.*,

**Localization and classification of partially overlapped objects using
self-organizing trees**,

*ICIP03*(III: 137-140).

IEEE DOI
**0312**

BibRef

*Kawaguchi, T.[Tsuyoshi]*,
*Nagao, M.[Makoto]*,

**Recognition of Occluded Objects by a Genetic Algorithm**,

*ICPR98*(Vol I: 233-237).

IEEE DOI
**9808**

BibRef

*Vergnet, R.L.*,
*Saint-Marc, P.*, and
*Ayache, N.J.*,

**Robustness of Model-Based Recognition in Cluttered Images**,

*CVPR93*(713-714).

IEEE DOI
BibRef
**9300**

*Lee, C.H.*,
*Quek, G.P.*,

**Partial Matching of two Dimensional Shapes Using Random Coding**,

*ICPR88*(I: 64-68).

IEEE DOI
BibRef
**8800**

*Li, J.C.*,
*Yuan, B.Z.*,

**Using Stereo Vision Analysis to Recognize Partially Obscured Objects**,

*ICPR88*(II: 758-760).

IEEE DOI
BibRef
**8800**

*Singer, P.F.[Paul Frank]*, and
*Chellappa, R.*,

**Machine Perception of Partially Obscured Planar Shapes**,

*CVPR85*(497-502).
BibRef
**8500**

Earlier:

**Classification of Boundaries on the Plane Using Stochastic Models**,

*CVPR83*(146-147).
Uses a circular auto-regressive model. Not the
real model for the noise that is expected.
BibRef

Chapter on Registration, Matching and Recognition Using Points, Lines, Regions, Areas, Surfaces continues in

Contours Through a Sequence .

Last update:Mar 13, 2017 at 16:25:24