23.4.6.2.1 Handwritten Characters, Feature Extraction

Chapter Contents (Back)
Handwriting. Feature Extraction.

Tou, J.T., Gonzalez, R.C.,
Recognition of Handwritten Characters by Topological Feature Extraction and Multilevel Categorization,
TC(21), No. 7, July 1972, pp. 776-784. BibRef 7207

Yamamoto, K.[Kazuhiko], Mori, S.J.[Shun-Ji],
Recognition of Handprinted Characters by an Outermost Point Method,
PR(12), No. 4, 1980, pp. 229-236.
WWW Link. 0309
BibRef

Shinghal, R., and Suen, C.Y.,
A Method for Selecting Constrained Hand-Printed Character Shapes for Machine Recognition,
PAMI(4), No. 1, January 1982, pp. 74-78. BibRef 8201

Cox, III, C.H., Coueignoux, P., Blesser, B.B., Eden, M.,
Skeletons: A link between theoretical and physical letter descriptions,
PR(15), No. 1, 1982, pp. 11-22.
WWW Link. 0309
BibRef

Mantas, J., Heaton, A.G.,
Handwritten Character Recognition by Parallel Labelling and Shape Analysis,
PRL(1), 1983, pp. 465-468. BibRef 8300

Abdulla, W.H., Saleh, A.O.M., Morad, A.H.,
A Preprocessing Algorithm for Hand-Written Character Recognition,
PRL(7), 1988, pp. 13-18. BibRef 8800

Li, H.F., Jayakumar, R., Youssef, M.,
Parallel algorithms for recognizing handwritten characters using shape features,
PR(22), No. 6, 1989, pp. 641-652.
WWW Link. 0309
BibRef

Lee, K.H., Eom, K.B., Kashyap, R.L.,
Character Recognition Based on Attribute-Dependent Programmed Grammar,
PAMI(14), No. 11, November 1992, pp. 1122-1128.
IEEE DOI BibRef 9211
Earlier:
Character Recognition Using Attributed Grammar,
CVPR88(418-423).
IEEE DOI BibRef

Doermann, D.S.[David S.], Varma, V.[Venugopal], Rosenfeld, A.[Azriel],
Instrument grasp: a model and its effects on handwritten strokes,
PR(27), No. 2, February 1994, pp. 233-245.
WWW Link. 0401
BibRef

Li, Z.C., Suen, C.Y., Guo, J.,
A Regional Decomposition Method for Recognizing Handprinted Characters,
SMC(25), No. 6, June 1995, pp. 998-1010. BibRef 9506

Liou, C.Y., Yang, H.C.,
Handprinted Character-Recognition Based on Spatial Topology Distance Measurement,
PAMI(18), No. 9, September 1996, pp. 941-945.
IEEE DOI Handprinted Character Recognition. Distance Measures. Neural Networks. Elastic Matching. BibRef 9609

Amin, A., Iyer, S., Wilson, W.H.,
Recognition of Hand Printed Latin Characters Based on a Structural Approach with a Neural Network Classifier,
JEI(6), No. 3, July 1997, pp. 303-310. 9807
BibRef

Gourdol, A.P.J.[Arnaud P. J.],
Method and apparatus for recognizing gestures on a computer system,
US_Patent5,594,810, January 14, 1997.
WWW Link. BibRef 9701

Kato, N.[Nei], Suzuki, M.[Masato], Omachi, S.[Shin'ichiro], Aso, H.[Hirotomo], Nemoto, Y.[Yoshiaki],
Handwritten Character Recognition System Using Directional Element Feature and Asymmetric Mahalanobis Distance,
PAMI(21), No. 3, March 1999, pp. 258-262.
IEEE DOI See also Noise-Adaptive Discriminant Function and Its Application to Blurred Machine Printed Kanji Recognition, A. BibRef 9903

Kato, T., Omachi, S., Aso, H.,
Precise Hand-printed Character Recognition Using Elastic Models Via Nonlinear Transformation,
ICPR00(Vol II: 364-367).
IEEE DOI 0009
BibRef

Foggia, P.[Pasquale], Sansone, C.[Carlo], Tortorella, F.[Francesco], Vento, M.[Mario],
Combining statistical and structural approaches for handwritten character description,
IVC(17), No. 9, July 1999, pp. 701-711.
WWW Link. BibRef 9907

Foggia, P., Sansone, C., Tortorella, F., Vento, M.,
Character Recognition by Geometrical Moments on Structural Decompositions,
ICDAR97(6-10).
IEEE DOI 9708
BibRef

L'Homer, E.[Eric],
Extraction of strokes in handwritten characters,
PR(33), No. 7, July 2000, pp. 1147-1160.
WWW Link. 0005
BibRef

Bote-Lorenzo, M.L.[Miguel L.], Dimitriadis, Y.A.[Yannis A.], Gómez-Sánchez, E.[Eduardo],
Automatic extraction of human-recognizable shape and execution prototypes of handwritten characters,
PR(36), No. 7, July 2003, pp. 1605-1617.
WWW Link. 0304
BibRef

Verma, B.[Brijesh], Blumenstein, M.[Michael], Ghosh, M.[Moumita],
A Novel Approach for Structural Feature Extraction: Contour vs. Direction,
PRL(25), No. 9, 2 July 2004, pp. 975-988.
WWW Link. 0407
BibRef

Verma, B.,
A contour code feature based segmentation for handwriting recognition,
ICDAR03(1203-1207).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Verma, B., Ghosh, M.,
A neural-evolutionary approach for feature and architecture selection in online handwriting recognition,
ICDAR03(1038-1042).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Blumenstein, M., Verma, B., Basli, H.,
A novel feature extraction technique for the recognition of segmented handwritten characters,
ICDAR03(137-141).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Blumenstein, M.[Michael], Liu, X.Y.[Xin Yu], Verma, B.[Brijesh],
An investigation of the modified direction feature for cursive character recognition,
PR(40), No. 2, February 2007, pp. 376-388.
WWW Link. 0611
Handwritten character recognition; Neural networks BibRef

Lee, H.[Hong], Verma, B.[Brijesh],
Binary segmentation algorithm for English cursive handwriting recognition,
PR(45), No. 4, April 2012, pp. 1306-1317.
Elsevier DOI 1112
Handwriting recognition; Segmentation algorithm; OCR; Pattern recognition BibRef

Xue, H.H.[Han-Hong], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Hidden Markov Models Combining Discrete Symbols and Continuous Attributes in Handwriting Recognition,
PAMI(28), No. 3, March 2006, pp. 458-462.
IEEE DOI 0602
BibRef
Earlier:
A Stochastic Model Combining Discrete Symbols and Continuous Attributes and Its Application to Handwriting Recognition,
DAS02(70 ff.).
Springer DOI 0303
BibRef
Earlier:
Performance prediction for handwritten word recognizers and its application to classifier combination,
ICPR02(III: 241-244).
IEEE DOI 0211
BibRef
And:
Incorporating contextual character geometry in word recognition,
FHR02(123-127).
IEEE Top Reference. 0209
BibRef
Building Skeletal Graphs for Structural Feature Extraction on Handwriting Images,
ICDAR01(96-100).
IEEE DOI 0109
Combine discrete symbols and continuous attributes for handwriting analysis. BibRef

Djioua, M.[Moussa], Plamondon, R.[Rejean],
A New Algorithm and System for the Characterization of Handwriting Strokes with Delta-Lognormal Parameters,
PAMI(31), No. 11, November 2009, pp. 2060-2072.
IEEE DOI 0910
Estimate strokes in handwriting. Zero crossings of derivitives. BibRef

Plamondon, R.[Rejean],
Invited Lecture I: Strokes against Stroke - Stroke For Strides,
FHR12(363).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Plamondon, R.[Rejean],
Neuromuscular Studies of Handwriting Generation and Representation,
FHR10(261).
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef

Plamondon, R.[Réjean], O'Reilly, C.[Christian], Ouellet-Plamondon, C.[Claudéric],
Strokes against stroke: strokes for strides,
PR(47), No. 3, 2014, pp. 929-944.
Elsevier DOI 1312
Stroke risk, analysis using handwriting strokes. Complex systems BibRef

de Stefano, C.[Claudio], Fontanella, F.[Francesco], Marrocco, C., Scotto di Freca, A.[Alessandra],
A GA-based feature selection approach with an application to handwritten character recognition,
PRL(35), No. 1, 2014, pp. 130-141.
Elsevier DOI 1312
Feature selection BibRef

Mishra, T.K.[Tusar Kanti], Majhi, B.[Banshidhar], Dash, R.[Ratnakar],
Shape descriptors-based generalised scheme for handwritten character recognition,
IJCVR(6), No. 1-2, 2016, pp. 168-179.
DOI Link 1601
BibRef

Al-Maadeed, S.[Somaya], Ferjani, F.[Fethi], Elloumi, S.[Samir], Jaoua, A.[Ali],
A novel approach for handedness detection from off-line handwriting using fuzzy conceptual reduction,
JIVP(2016), No. 1, 2016, pp. 1.
DOI Link 1601
BibRef

He, S.[Sheng], Samara, P.[Petros], Burgers, J.[Jan], Schomaker, L.[Lambert],
A Multiple-Label Guided Clustering Algorithm for Historical Document Dating and Localization,
IP(25), No. 11, November 2016, pp. 5252-5265.
IEEE DOI 1610
Correlation. Handwriting style. BibRef

He, S.[Sheng], Schomaker, L.[Lambert],
A Polar Stroke Descriptor for classification of historical documents,
ICDAR15(6-10)
IEEE DOI 1511
BibRef

Simonnet, D.[Damien], Anquetil, E.[Eric], Bouillon, M.[Manuel],
Multi-criteria handwriting quality analysis with online fuzzy models,
PR(69), No. 1, 2017, pp. 310-324.
Elsevier DOI 1706
Handwriting analysis BibRef


Ye, J.Y.[Jun-Yu], Zhang, Y.M.[Yan-Ming], Liu, C.L.[Cheng-Lin],
Joint training of conditional random fields and neural networks for stroke classification in online handwritten documents,
ICPR16(3264-3269)
IEEE DOI 1705
Artificial neural networks, Databases, Feature extraction, Inference algorithms, Prediction algorithms, Training BibRef

Yang, W., Jin, L., Ni, H.[Hao], Lyons, T.,
Rotation-free online handwritten character recognition using dyadic path signature features, hanging normalization, and deep neural network,
ICPR16(4083-4088)
IEEE DOI 1705
Biological neural networks, Character recognition, Distortion, Feature extraction, Handwriting recognition, Trajectory, neural network, online handwritten character recognition, path signature feature, rotation normalization, rotation-free, recognition BibRef

Yin, F.[Fei], Liu, P.P.[Pai Pai], Huang, L.L.[Lin Lin], Liu, C.L.[Cheng-Lin],
Lexicon-driven recognition of one-stroke character strings in visual gesture,
ICDAR15(421-425)
IEEE DOI 1511
Gesture character string recognition BibRef

Saroui, B.S.[Behrang Sabeghi], Sorge, V.[Volker],
Trajectory recovery and stroke reconstruction of handwritten mathematical symbols,
ICDAR15(1051-1055)
IEEE DOI 1511
Offline handwriting recognition BibRef

Griechisch, E.[Erika], Bencsik, E.[Erika],
Handedness detection of online handwriting based on horizontal strokes,
ICDAR15(1272-1277)
IEEE DOI 1511
handedness;horizontal strokes;left-handed writers;online handwriting BibRef

Wang, S.[Song], Uchida, S., Liwicki, M.,
Part-Based Recognition of Arbitrary Fonts,
ICDAR13(170-174)
IEEE DOI 1312
character recognition BibRef

Ramaiah, C., Shivram, A., Govindaraju, V.,
A Bayesian Framework for Modeling Accents in Handwriting,
ICDAR13(917-921)
IEEE DOI 1312
belief networks BibRef

Razafindramanana, O.[Octavio], Rayar, F.[Frederic], Venturini, G.[Gilles],
Incremental Delaunay Triangulation Construction for Clustering,
ICPR14(1354-1359)
IEEE DOI 1412
BibRef
Earlier:
Alpha*-Approximated Delaunay Triangulation Based Descriptors for Handwritten Character Recognition,
ICDAR13(440-444)
IEEE DOI 1312
Clustering algorithms. approximation theory BibRef

Stamatopoulos, N., Gatos, B., Louloudis, G., Pal, U., Alaei, A.,
ICDAR 2013 Handwriting Segmentation Contest,
ICDAR13(1402-1406)
IEEE DOI 1312
document image processing BibRef

Hassaine, A., Al Maadeed, S., Bouridane, A.,
ICDAR 2013 Competition on Handwriting Stroke Recovery from Offline Data,
ICDAR13(1412-1416)
IEEE DOI 1312
handwriting recognition BibRef

Gmati, C.[Chekib], Haboubi, S.[Sofiene], Alaqeeli, A.[Abdulqadir], Amiri, H.[Hamid],
A Study of Handwritten Characters by Shape Descriptors: Doping Using the Freeman Code,
FHR12(285-290).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Gupta, K.[Kamal], Bansal, M.[Manish], Chaudhury, S.[Santanu],
A Compression Scheme for Handwritten Patterns Based on Curve Fitting,
ICDAR11(1115-1119).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Uchida, S.[Seiichi], Sasaki, T.[Toru], Yaokai, F.[Feng],
A Generative Model for Handwritings Based on Enhanced Feature Desynchronization,
ICDAR11(589-593).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Song, W.[Wang], Uchida, S.[Seiichi], Liwicki, M.[Marcus],
Comparative Study of Part-Based Handwritten Character Recognition Methods,
ICDAR11(814-818).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef
And:
Look Inside the World of Parts of Handwritten Characters,
ICDAR11(784-788).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Uchida, S.[Seiichi], Liwicki, M.[Marcus],
Part-Based Recognition of Handwritten Characters,
FHR10(545-550).
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef
And:
Analysis of Local Features for Handwritten Character Recognition,
ICPR10(1945-1948).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Duval, M.A.[Miguel A.], Vega-Pons, S.[Sandro], Garea, E.[Eduardo],
Experimental Comparison of Orthogonal Moments as Feature Extraction Methods for Character Recognition,
CIARP10(394-401).
Springer DOI 1011
BibRef

Rui, C.[Chen], Cao, B.J.[Bei-Jun], Asharif, M.R., Yamashita, K.,
Character Recognition Algorithm Based on the Central Location and Polar Projection,
CISP09(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0910
BibRef

Du, J.M.[Jia-Ming], Wang, C.L.[Chao-Li], Liang, S.L.[Shu-Ling], Liang, Z.Y.[Zhen-Ying],
A Recognition Algorithm for Letter Digital Images Based on the Centroid,
CISP09(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0910
Features of letters. BibRef

Lu, S.J., Li, L., Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Identification of Latin-Based Languages through Character Stroke Categorization,
ICDAR07(352-356).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Liu, Y.H.[Ying-Ho], Lin, C.C.[Chin-Chin], Lin, W.H.[Wen-Hsiung], Chang, F.[Fu],
Fast vector matching methods and their applications to handwriting recognition,
ICDAR05(II: 871-875).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Kang, S.[Sijun], Govindaraju, V.,
A new feature ranking method in a HMM-based handwriting recognition system,
ICDAR05(II: 779-783).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Rico-Juan, J.R.[Juan Ramón], Micó, L.[Luisa],
Finding Significant Points for a Handwritten Classification Task,
ICIAR04(I: 440-446).
Springer DOI 0409
BibRef

Sun, Q.S.[Quan-Sen], Zeng, S.G.[Sheng-Gen], Heng, P.A.[Pheng-Ann], Xia, D.S.[De-Sen],
Feature Fusion Method Based on Canonical Correlation Analysis and Handwritten Character Recognition,
ICARCV04(II: 1547-1552).
IEEE DOI 0412
See also double-threshold image binarization method based on edge detector, A. BibRef

Hoque, S., Sirlantzis, K., Fairhurst, M.C.,
A new chain-code quantization approach enabling high performance handwriting recognition based on multi-classifier schemes,
ICDAR03(834-838).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Bodansky, E.[Eugene], Gribov, A.[Alexander],
Closing Gaps of Discontinuous Lines: A New Criterion for Choosing the Best Prolongation,
DAS02(119 ff.).
Springer DOI 0303
BibRef

Ruiz, A.,
Affine alignment for stroke classification,
FHR02(381-386).
IEEE Top Reference. 0209
BibRef

Sadykhov, R., Malenko, O., Klimovich, A.N., Selinger, M.L.,
Hybrid System for Recognition of Handwritten Symbols on the Base of Structural Methods and Neural Networks,
VI02(223).
PDF File. 0208
BibRef

Houle, G.F., Blinova, K., Shridhar, M.,
Handwriting stroke extraction using a new XYTC transform,
ICDAR01(91-95).
IEEE DOI 0109
BibRef

Nishimura, H., Tsutsumi, M.,
Off-line hand-written character recognition using integrated 1D HMMs based on feature extraction filters,
ICDAR01(417-421).
IEEE DOI 0109
BibRef

Cha, S.H.[Sung-Hyuk], Srihari, S.N.,
A priori algorithm for sub-category classification analysis of handwriting,
ICDAR01(1022-1025).
IEEE DOI 0109
BibRef
Earlier:
Distance Between Histograms of Angular Measurements and Its Application to Handwritten Character Similarity,
ICPR00(Vol II: 21-24).
IEEE DOI 0009
BibRef

Cha, S.H.[Sung-Hyuk],
Distance between Histograms with Shuffled Cost Matrix,
SSPR08(633-643).
Springer DOI 0812
BibRef

Tascini, G., Montesanto, A., Puliti, P.,
Using normal patterns in handwritten character recognition,
CIAP99(997-1002).
IEEE DOI 9909
BibRef

Tsang, C.[Chris], Chung, F.L.[Fu-Lai],
Development of a Structural Deformable Model for Handwriting Recognition,
ICPR98(Vol II: 1130-1133).
IEEE DOI 9808
BibRef

Anisimovich, K., Rybkin, V., Tereschenko, V., Shamis, A.,
Using Combination of Structural, Feature and Raster Classifiers for Recognition of Hand-Printed Characters,
ICDAR97(881-885).
IEEE DOI 9708
BibRef

Mace, S.[Sebastien], Anquetil, E.[Eric],
A Generic Method for Eager Interpretation of On-Line Handwritten Structured Documents,
ICPR06(II: 1106-1109).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Tsang, I.J., Tsang, I.R., Van Dyck, D.,
Handwritten character recognition based on moment features derived from image partition,
ICIP98(II: 939-942).
IEEE DOI 9810
BibRef

Anquetil, E., Lorette, G.,
Perceptual Model of Handwriting Drawing, Application To the handwriting Segmentation Problem,
ICDAR97(112-117).
IEEE DOI 9708
BibRef

Miura, K.T., Sato, R., Mori, S.,
A Method Of Extracting Curvature Features and Its Application to Handwritten Character Recognition,
ICDAR97(450-454).
IEEE DOI 9708
BibRef

Lallican, P.M., Viard-Gaudin, C.,
A Kalman Approach for Stroke Order Recovering from Off-Line Handwriting,
ICDAR97(519-522).
IEEE DOI 9708
BibRef

Hu, J., Yan, H.,
Structural Decomposition and Description of Printed and Handwritten Characters,
ICPR96(III: 230-234).
IEEE DOI 9608
(Univ. of Sydney, AUS) BibRef

Singh, S.,
Shape Detection Using Gradient Features for Handwritten Character Recognition,
ICPR96(III: 145-149).
IEEE DOI 9608
(Univ. of Plymouth, UK) BibRef

Pedrazzi, P., Colla, A.M.,
Simple feature extraction for handwritten character recognition,
ICIP95(III: 320-323).
IEEE DOI 9510
BibRef

Cheriet, M., Thibault, R., Sabourin, R.,
A multi-resolution based approach for handwriting segmentation in gray-scale images,
ICIP94(I: 159-163).
IEEE DOI 9411
BibRef

Liu, K.[Ke], Huang, Y.S.[Yea-Shuan], Suen, C.Y., Yang, J.Y.[Jing-Yu], Liu, L.J.[Lei-Jian], Liu, Y.J.[Ying-Jiang],
Discriminant performance of the algebraic features of handwritten character images,
ICPR94(B:426-428).
IEEE DOI 9410
BibRef

Rauber, T.W., Steiger-Garcao, A.S.,
Shape description by UNL Fourier features-an application to handwritten character recognition,
ICPR92(II:466-469).
IEEE DOI 9208
BibRef

Hachimura, K.,
Decomposition of hand-printed patterns,
ICPR92(III:417-420).
IEEE DOI 9208
BibRef

Pan, B.C.,
Floating Mask Method for Extracting Hand-Printed Character Features,
ICPR86(324-326). BibRef 8600

Babaguchi, N., Tsukamoto, M., Aibara, T.,
Knowledge Aided Character Segmentation from Handwritten Document Image,
ICPR86(573-575). BibRef 8600

Cordella, L.P., Marcelli, A.,
Normalization and Decomposition of Thin Lines Representing Handprinted Characters,
ICPR86(723-725). BibRef 8600

Chapter on OCR, Document Analysis and Character Recognition Systems continues in
Online Recognition of Handwritten Characters .


Last update:Sep 25, 2017 at 16:36:46