23.4.3.1 Binarization: Threshold selection for documents, Character Enhancement

Chapter Contents (Back)
Binarization. Segmentation. See also Segmentation by Thresholding, Quantization, or Relaxation.

Wahl, F.M., Wong, K.Y., and Casey, R.G.,
Block Segmentation and Text Extraction in Mixed Text/Image Documents,
CGIP(20), No. 4, December 1982, pp. 375-390.
WWW Link. Document Analysis. Segmentation, Binarization. BibRef 8212

Casey, R.G., and Naagy, G.,
Recursive Segmentation and Classification of Composite Patterns,
ICPR82(1023-xx). Separate characters for OCR BibRef 8209

Walsh, B.F.[Brian F.], Halpert, D.E.[David E.],
Low resolution raster images,
US_Patent4,437,122, Mar 13, 1984
WWW Link. BibRef 8403

Nadler, M.[Morton],
Process and device for the binarization of a pattern,
US_Patent4,509,195, Apr 2, 1985
WWW Link. BibRef 8504

Tanioka, H.[Hiroshi],
Image processing apparatus,
US_Patent4,723,173, Feb 2, 1988
WWW Link. Binarization BibRef 8802

Yoneda, H.[Hitoshi], Machida, H.[Hironobu], Kanno, H.[Hiroki], Izawa, K.[Koji],
Image processing device,
US_Patent5,001,767, Mar 19, 1991
WWW Link. Binarization BibRef 9103

Klees, K.J.[Kevin J.],
Edge enhancement error diffusion thresholding for document images,
US_Patent5,034,990, July 23, 1991.
WWW Link. BibRef 9107
And:
Adaptive error diffusion thresholding for document images,
US_Patent5,060,284, Oct 22, 1991
WWW Link. BibRef

Marandici, M.P.[Mircea P.], Quinn, M.J.[Matthew J.],
Automatic threshold generation technique,
US_Patent5,337,373, Aug 9, 1994
WWW Link. BibRef 9408

Chou, S.L.[Sheng-Li], Yu, S.S.[Shiaw-Shian], Lai, Y.C.[Yuan-Cheng],
Run-based method for smoothing handwritten Chinese characters,
US_Patent5,410,614, Apr 25, 1995
WWW Link. BibRef 9504

Liu, Y., Srihari, S.N.,
Document Image Binarization Based on Texture Features,
PAMI(19), No. 5, May 1997, pp. 540-544.
IEEE DOI 9705
Candidate thresholds using Otsu ( See also Threshold Selection Method from Grey-Level Histograms, A. ), Textures using runlength histogram texture, Select threshold to preserve desirable document texture features. BibRef

Palumbo, P.W., Swaminathan, P., Srihari, S.N.,
Document Image Binarization: Evaluation of Algorithms,
SPIE(697), 1986, pp. 278-285. BibRef 8600

Liu, Y.,
Document Image Binarization Based on Texture Analysis,
Ph.D.Thesis, SUNY/Buffalo, 1995. BibRef 9500

Durham, T.J.[Thomas J.],
Method and apparatus for image capture of information on documents,
US_Patent4,821,332, Apr 11, 1989
WWW Link. BibRef 8904

Taxt, T., Flynn, P.J., and Jain, A.K.,
Segmentation of Document Images,
PAMI(11), No. 12, December 1989, pp. 1322-1329.
IEEE DOI BibRef 8912
Earlier: SMC-C89(1062-1067). OCR. Segmentation, Binarization. Evaluation, Segmentation. Document Analysis. Relaxation based technique worked best on two cases and the non-contextual technique on the other two. The system essentially classifies pixels as text or background, no recognition, etc. BibRef

Trier, O.D.[Oivind Due], Jain, A.K.[Anil K.],
Goal-Directed Evaluation of Binarization Methods,
PAMI(17), No. 12, December 1995, pp. 1191-1201.
IEEE DOI Segmentation, Binarization. Evaluation, Segmentation. Evaluate the algorithm by how well the next stage performs, rather than some arbitrary measure. The same conclusion reached in See also Evaluation of Binarization Methods for Document Images. BibRef 9512

Trier, O.D., Taxt, T.,
Evaluation of Binarization Methods for Document Images,
PAMI(17), No. 3, March 1995, pp. 312-315.
IEEE DOI Evaluation, Segmentation. Segmentation, Binarization. Evaluation, Thresholding. BibRef 9503
And: Correction: PAMI(17), No. 6, June 1995, pp. 640-640.
IEEE Top Reference. BibRef
And:
Improvement of Integrated Function Algorithm for Binarization of Document Images,
PRL(16), No. 3, March 1995, pp. 277-283. BibRef
Earlier:
Evaluation of Binarization Methods for Utility Map Images,
ICIP94(II: 1046-1050).
IEEE DOI Modified locally adaptive methods were the best 3 when modified by See also New Method for Image Segmentation, A. which was fourth by itself. Global methods did far worse. The method in the book ( See also Introduction to Digital Image Processing, An. ) (when modified) did the best. See also Fast Adaptive Method for Binarization of Document Images, A. (modified) was second. See also Dynamic Thresholding of Grey-Level Images. (modified) was third. BibRef

Tan, H.L.[Hin-Leong],
Row-by-row segmentation and thresholding for optical character recognition,
US_Patent5,081,690, Jan 14, 1992
WWW Link. BibRef 9201

Oh, I.S.,
Document Image Binarization Preserving Stroke Connectivity,
PRL(16), No. 7, July 1995, pp. 743-748. BibRef 9507

O'Gorman, L.,
Binarization and Multithresholding of Document Images Using Connectivity,
GMIP(56), No. 6, November 1994, pp. 494-506. BibRef 9411
And:
Experimental comparisons of binarization and multi-thresholding methods on document images,
ICPR94(B:395-398).
IEEE DOI 9410
BibRef

Kamel, M.S.[Mohamed S.], Zhao, A.[Aiguo],
Extraction of Binary Character/Graphics Images from Grayscale Document Images,
GMIP(55), No. 3, May 1993, pp. 203-??. BibRef 9305
Earlier:
Binary character/graphics image extraction: a new technique and six evaluation aspects,
ICPR92(III:113-116).
IEEE DOI 9208
BibRef

Mo, S., Mathews, V.J.,
Adaptive, Quadratic Preprocessing of Document Images for Binarization,
IP(7), No. 7, July 1998, pp. 992-999.
IEEE DOI 9807
BibRef

Jang, J.H.[Jeong-Hun], Hong, K.S.[Ki-Sang],
Binarization of noisy gray-scale character images by thin line modeling,
PR(32), No. 5, May 1999, pp. 743-752.
WWW Link. BibRef 9905

Solihin, Y., Leedham, C.G.,
Integral Ratio: A New Class of Global Thresholding Techniques for Handwriting Images,
PAMI(21), No. 8, August 1999, pp. 761-768.
IEEE DOI BibRef 9908
Earlier:
Mathematical properties of the native integral ratio handwriting and text extraction technique,
ICDAR97(1102-1106).
IEEE DOI 9708
BibRef

Kaji, Y.[Yukio], Nakajima, T.[Toshiki],
Binarization system for an image scanner,
US_Patent5,915,049, Jun 22, 1999
WWW Link. BibRef 9906

Sauvola, J., Pietikäinen, M.,
Adaptive document image binarization,
PR(33), No. 2, February 2000, pp. 225-236.
WWW Link. 0001
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Sauvola, J., Seppanen, T., Haapakoski, S., Pietikainen, M.,
Adaptive document binarization,
ICDAR97(147-152).
IEEE DOI 9708
BibRef

Yang, Y.B.[Yi-Bing], Yan, H.[Hong],
An adaptive logical method for binarization of degraded document images,
PR(33), No. 5, May 2000, pp. 787-807.
WWW Link. 0003
BibRef

Zhao, M.S.[Man-Suo], Yang, Y.B.[Yi-Bing], Yan, H.[Hong],
An adaptive thresholding method for binarization of blueprint images,
PRL(21), No. 10, October 2000, pp. 927-943. 0008
BibRef

Savakis, A.E.[Andreas E.],
Document image thresholding using foreground and background clustering,
US_Patent6,044,179, Mar 28, 2000
WWW Link. BibRef 0003
And:
Adaptive document image thresholding using foreground and background clustering,
ICIP98(III: 785-789).
IEEE DOI 9810
BibRef

Qin, S.F.[Sheng-Feng], Wright, D.K.[David K.], Jordanov, I.N.[Ivan N.],
On-line segmentation of freehand sketches by knowledge-based nonlinear thresholding operations,
PR(34), No. 10, October 2001, pp. 1885-1893.
WWW Link. 0108
BibRef

Kim, I.K.[In-Kwon], Jung, D.W.[Dong-Wook], Park, R.H.[Rae-Hong],
Document image binarization based on topographic analysis using a water flow model,
PR(35), No. 1, January 2002, pp. 265-277.
WWW Link. 0111
BibRef

Don, H.S.[Hon-Son],
A noise attribute thresholding method for document image binarization,
IJDAR(4), No. 2 2001, pp. 131-138.
Springer DOI 0201
BibRef

Tsai, C.M.[Chun-Ming], Lee, H.J.[Hsi-Jian],
Binarization of color document images via luminance and saturation color features,
IP(11), No. 4, April 2002, pp. 434-451.
IEEE DOI 0205
BibRef

Tsai, C.M.[Chun-Ming], Lee, H.J.[Hsi-Jian],
Efficiently extracting and classifying objects for analyzing color documents,
MVA(22), No. 1, January 2011, pp. 1-19.
WWW Link. 1101
BibRef

Tsai, C.M.[Chun-Ming], Yeh, Z.M.[Zong-Mu], Wang, Y.F.[Yuan-Fang],
Decision tree-based contrast enhancement for various color images,
MVA(22), No. 1, January 2011, pp. 21-37.
WWW Link. 1101
BibRef

Tsai, C.M.[Chun-Ming],
Intelligent region-based thresholding for color document images with highlighted regions,
PR(45), No. 4, April 2012, pp. 1341-1362.
Elsevier DOI 1112
Region-based thresholding; Color document image; Highlighted region background; Restricted background projection BibRef

Zlotnick, A.[Aviad],
Method for image binarization,
US_Patent6,351,566, Feb 26, 2002
WWW Link. BibRef 0202

Lee, Y.C.[Yong-Chun], Rudak, P.[Peter],
Region-based image binarization system,
US_Patent6,393,150, May 21, 2002
WWW Link. BibRef 0205

Dawoud, A.[Amer], Kamel, M.S.[Mohamed S.],
Natural Skeletonization: New Approach For The Skeletonization Of Handwritten Characters,
IJIG(5), No. 2, April 2005, pp. 267-279. 0504
BibRef

Dawoud, A.[Amer], Kamel, M.S.[Mohamed S.],
Iterative model-based binarization algorithm for cheque images,
IJDAR(5), No. 1, 2002, pp. 28-38.
Springer DOI 0211
BibRef
Earlier:
Binarization of document images using image dependent model,
ICDAR01(49-53).
IEEE DOI 0109
BibRef

Dawoud, A.[Amer], Kamel, M.S.[Mohamed S.],
Iterative Multimodel Subimage Binarization for Handwritten Character Segmentation,
IP(13), No. 9, September 2004, pp. 1223-1230.
IEEE DOI 0409
BibRef
Earlier:
Iterative sub-image binarization for document images,
ICIP03(I: 553-556).
IEEE Abstract. 0312
BibRef

Tabbone, S.A.[Salvatore A.], Wendling, L.[Laurent],
Multi-scale binarization of images,
PRL(24), No. 1-3, January 2003, pp. 403-411.
Elsevier DOI 0211
BibRef
Earlier:
An original multi-scale algorithm to binarize images,
ICPR02(IV: 322-325).
IEEE DOI 0211
BibRef

Wang, B.[Bin], Li, X.F.[Xiang-Feng], Liu, F.[Feng], Hu, F.Q.[Fu-Qiao],
Color text image binarization based on binary texture analysis,
PRL(26), No. 10, 15 July 2005, pp. 1568-1576.
WWW Link. 0506
BibRef
And: PRL(26), No. 11, August 2005, pp. 1650-1657.
WWW Link. 0506
BibRef

Oh, H.H.[Hyun-Hwa], Lim, K.T.[Kil-Taek], Chien, S.I.[Sung-Il],
An improved binarization algorithm based on a water flow model for document image with inhomogeneous backgrounds,
PR(38), No. 12, December 2005, pp. 2612-2625.
WWW Link. 0510
BibRef

Curry, D.J.[Donald J.], Kletter, D.[Doron], Nafarieh, A.[Asghar],
Dynamic threshold system for multiple raster content (MRC) representation of documents,
US_Patent6,859,204, Feb 22, 2005
WWW Link. BibRef 0502

Gatos, B.[Basilios], Pratikakis, I.E.[Ioannis E.], Perantonis, S.J.[Stavros J.],
Adaptive degraded document image binarization,
PR(39), No. 3, March 2006, pp. 317-327.
WWW Link. 0601
BibRef
Earlier:
An Adaptive Binarization Technique for Low Quality Historical Documents,
DAS04(102-113).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef

Ntirogiannis, K., Gatos, B.[Basilios], Pratikakis, I.E.[Ioannis E.],
A combined approach for the binarization of handwritten document images,
PRL(35), No. 1, 2014, pp. 3-15.
Elsevier DOI 1312
Document image binarization BibRef

Gatos, B.[Basilis], Pratikakis, I.E., Perantonis, S.J.,
Improved document image binarization by using a combination of multiple binarization techniques and adapted edge information,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Gupta, M.R.[Maya R.], Jacobson, N.P.[Nathaniel P.], Garcia, E.K.[Eric K.],
OCR binarization and image pre-processing for searching historical documents,
PR(40), No. 2, February 2007, pp. 389-397.
WWW Link. 0611
OCR; Binarization; Multiresolutional; Halftoning BibRef

Downton, A.C.[Andy C.], He, J.Y.[Jing-Yu], Lucas, S.[Simon],
User-configurable OCR enhancement for online natural history archives,
IJDAR(9), No. 2-4, April 2007, pp. 263-279.
Springer DOI 0704
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1, Only:
Evaluation of a user-assisted archive construction system for online natural history archives,
ICDAR05(I: 442-446).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

He, J., Do, Q.D.M., Downton, A.C., Kim, J.H.,
A comparison of binarization methods for historical archive documents,
ICDAR05(I: 538-542).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Badekas, E.[Efthimios], Nikolaou, N.[Nikos], Papamarkos, N.[Nikos],
Text binarization in color documents,
IJIST(16), No. 6, 2006, pp. 262-274.
DOI Link 0706
BibRef

Badekas, E.[Efthimios], Papamarkos, N.[Nikos],
Document binarisation using Kohonen SOM,
IET-IPR(1), No. 1, March 2007, pp. 67-84.
DOI Link 0905
BibRef

Nikolaou, N.[Nikos], Papamarkos, N.[Nikos],
Color reduction for complex document images,
IJIST(19), No. 1, March 2009, pp. 14-26.
DOI Link 0902
BibRef
Earlier:
Color Segmentation of Complex Document Images,
VISAPP06(251-263).
Springer DOI 0711
BibRef

Chen, Q.A.[Qi-Ang], Sun, Q.S.[Quan-Sen], Heng, P.A.[Pheng Ann], Xia, D.S.[De-Shen],
A double-threshold image binarization method based on edge detector,
PR(41), No. 4, April 2008, pp. 1254-1267.
WWW Link. 0801
Binarization; Double-threshold; Edge connection; Edge detector; Seed filling See also Parametric active contours for object tracking based on matching degree image of object contour points. BibRef

Chen, Q.A.[Qi-Ang], Xue, B.[Benben], Sun, Q.S.[Quan-Sen], Xia, D.S.[De-Shen],
Interactive image segmentation based on object contour feature image,
ICIP10(3605-3608).
IEEE DOI 1009
BibRef

Dong, L.[Liju], Yu, G.[Ge], Ogunbona, P.[Philip], Li, W.Q.[Wan-Qing],
An efficient iterative algorithm for image thresholding,
PRL(29), No. 9, 1 July 2008, pp. 1311-1316.
WWW Link. 0711
Thresholding; Binarisation; Segmentation BibRef

Huang, S.T.[Song-Tao], Ahmadi, M.[Majid], Sid-Ahmed, M.A.,
A hidden Markov model-based character extraction method,
PR(41), No. 9, September 2008, pp. 2890-2900.
WWW Link. 0806
Binarization; Thresholding; HMM; OCR; Stroke BibRef

Hu, X.F.[Xiao-Feng], Ye, Q.T.[Qing-Tai],
Adaptive Thresholding for Degraded Call Number Images,
IEICE(E88-D), No. 1, January 2005, pp. 162-163.
DOI Link 0501
BibRef

Chi, Z.[Zheru], Wang, Q.[Qing],
Document Image Binarization With Feedback For Improving Character Segmentation,
IJIG(5), No. 2, April 2005, pp. 281-309. 0504
BibRef

Quweider, M.K., Scargle, J.D., Jackson, B.,
Grey level reduction for segmentation, threshholding and binarisation of images based on optimal partitioning on an interval,
IET-IPR(1), No. 2, June 2007, pp. 103-111.
DOI Link 0905
BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Tapia, E.[Ernesto], Ramirez-Ramirez, L.L.[Lilia L.], Rojas, R.[Raul], Cuevas, E.[Erik],
Transition pixel: A concept for binarization based on edge detection and gray-intensity histograms,
PR(43), No. 4, April 2010, pp. 1233-1243.
Elsevier DOI 1002
Transition function; Thresholding; Binarization; Edge detection; Integral image; Image pre-processing BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Rojas, R.[Raul],
Unsupervised Evaluation Methods Based on Local Gray-Intensity Variances for Binarization of Historical Documents,
ICPR10(2029-2032).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Tapia, E.[Ernesto], Rojas, R.[Raul], Cuevas, E.[Erik],
Transition thresholds and transition operators for binarization and edge detection,
PR(43), No. 10, October 2010, pp. 3243-3254.
Elsevier DOI 1007
Transition function; Thresholding; Binarization; Edge detection; Image pre-processing BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Rojas, R.[Raul],
Transition Thresholds for Binarization of Historical Documents,
ICPR10(2362-2365).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Duenez-Guzman, E.A.[Edgar A.], Rojas, R.[Raul], Cuevas, E.[Erik],
Unsupervised measures for parameter selection of binarization algorithms,
PR(44), No. 3, March 2011, pp. 491-502.
Elsevier DOI 1011
Binarization; Image pre-processing; Unsupervised evaluation method BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Tapia, E.[Ernesto], Block, M., Rojas, R.[Raul],
Quantile Linear Algorithm for Robust Binarization of Digitalized Letters,
ICDAR07(1158-1162).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Chou, C.H.[Chien-Hsing], Lin, W.H.[Wen-Hsiung], Chang, F.[Fu],
A binarization method with learning-built rules for document images produced by cameras,
PR(43), No. 4, April 2010, pp. 1518-1530.
Elsevier DOI 1002
Document image binarization; Global threshold; Image processing; Local threshold; Multi-label problem; Non-uniform brightness; Support vector machine BibRef

Lazaro, J.[Jesus], Martin, J.L.[Jose Luis], Arias, J.[Jagoba], Astarloa, A.[Armando], Cuadrado, C.[Carlos],
Neuro semantic thresholding using OCR software for high precision OCR applications,
IVC(28), No. 4, April 2010, pp. 571-578.
Elsevier DOI 1002
Thresholding; Binarization; GRNN; Semantic description; OCR BibRef

Pai, Y.T.[Yu-Ting], Chang, Y.F.[Yi-Fan], Ruan, S.J.[Shanq-Jang],
Adaptive thresholding algorithm: Efficient computation technique based on intelligent block detection for degraded document images,
PR(43), No. 9, September 2010, pp. 3177-3187.
Elsevier DOI 1006
Document image analysis; Document image binarization; Adaptive thresholding; High speed; Low computational cost BibRef

Naegel, B.[Benoit], Wendling, L.[Laurent],
A document binarization method based on connected operators,
PRL(31), No. 11, 1 August 2010, pp. 1251-1259.
Elsevier DOI 1008
BibRef
Earlier:
Document Binarization Based on Connected Operators,
ICDAR09(316-320).
IEEE DOI 0907
Document binarization; Connected operators; Component-tree; Mathematical morphology BibRef

Lu, S.J.[Shi-Jian], Su, B.[Bolan], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Document image binarization using background estimation and stroke edges,
IJDAR(13), No. 4, December 2010, pp. 303-314.
WWW Link. 1101
BibRef

Gatos, B.[Basilis], Ntirogiannis, K.[Konstantinos], Pratikakis, I.E.[Ioannis E.],
DIBCO 2009: document image binarization contest,
IJDAR(14), No. 1, March 2011, pp. 35-44.
WWW Link. 1103
Evaluation, Binarization. BibRef
Earlier:
ICDAR 2009 Document Image Binarization Contest (DIBCO 2009),
ICDAR09(1375-1382).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Pratikakis, I.[Ioannis], Gatos, B.[Basilis], Ntirogiannis, K.[Konstantinos],
ICDAR 2013 Document Image Binarization Contest (DIBCO 2013),
ICDAR13(1471-1476)
IEEE DOI 1312
BibRef
Earlier:
ICFHR 2012 Competition on Handwritten Document Image Binarization (H-DIBCO 2012),
FHR12(817-822).
IEEE DOI 1302
Evaluation, Binarization. BibRef
And:
ICDAR 2011 Document Image Binarization Contest (DIBCO 2011),
ICDAR11(1506-1510).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef
And:
H-DIBCO 2010: Handwritten Document Image Binarization Competition,
FHR10(727-732).
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef

Bataineh, B.[Bilal], Abdullah, S.N.H.S.[Siti Norul Huda Sheikh], Omar, K.[Khairuddin],
An adaptive local binarization method for document images based on a novel thresholding method and dynamic windows,
PRL(32), No. 14, 15 October 2011, pp. 1805-1813.
Elsevier DOI 1110
Document image binarization; Local binarization; OCR; Text; Thresholding methods BibRef

Shi, J.[Jichuan], Ray, N.[Nilanjan], Zhang, H.[Hong],
Shape based local thresholding for binarization of document images,
PRL(33), No. 1, 1 January 2012, pp. 24-32.
Elsevier DOI 1112
Document binarization; Image threshold; Shape analysis See also Solidity based local threshold for oil sand image segmentation. BibRef

Valizadeh, M.[Morteza], Kabir, E.[Ehsanollah],
Binarization of degraded document image based on feature space partitioning and classification,
IJDAR(15), No. 1, March 2012, pp. 57-69.
WWW Link. 1203
BibRef

Valizadeh, M.[Morteza], Kabir, E.[Ehsanollah],
Partitioning of feature space by iterative classification for degraded document image binarisation,
IET-IPR(6), No. 6, 2012, pp. 804-812.
DOI Link 1210
BibRef

Valizadeh, M.[Morteza], Kabir, E.[Ehsanollah],
An adaptive water flow model for binarization of degraded document images,
IJDAR(16), No. 2, June 2013, pp. 165-176.
WWW Link. 1306
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Chiu, Y.H.[Yung-Hsiang], Chung, K.L.[Kuo-Liang], Yang, W.N.[Wei-Ning], Huang, Y.H.[Yong-Huai], Liao, C.H.[Chi-Huang],
Parameter-free based two-stage method for binarizing degraded document images,
PR(45), No. 12, December 2012, pp. 4250-4262.
Elsevier DOI 1208
Adaptive binarization method; Degraded document image; Document image processing; Performance evaluation BibRef

Zhu, Z.J.[Zhong-Jie], Wang, Y.[Yuer], Jiang, G.Y.[Gang-Yi],
On Perceptually Consistent Image Binarization,
SPLetters(20), No. 1, January 2013, pp. 3-6.
IEEE DOI 1212
BibRef

Wen, J.T.[Jiang-Tao], Li, S.[Shumo], Sun, J.[Jiedi],
A new binarization method for non-uniform illuminated document images,
PR(46), No. 6, June 2013, pp. 1670-1690.
Elsevier DOI 1302
Document image binarization; Non-uniform brightness; Curvelet transform; Adaptive multi-scale processing BibRef

Guo, G.C.[Gen-Cheng], Yu, X.W.[Xin-Wei], Jing, Y.[Yindi], Mandal, M.,
Optimal Design of Noise-Enhanced Binary Threshold Detector Under AUC Measure,
SPLetters(20), No. 2, February 2013, pp. 161-164.
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Dawoud, A., Netchaev, A.,
Graph cut-based binarisation of noisy check images,
IET-IPR(6), No. 9, 2012, pp. 1256-1261.
DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Shaikh, S.H.[Soharab Hossain], Maiti, A.K.[Asis Kumar], Chaki, N.[Nabendu],
A new image binarization method using iterative partitioning,
MVA(24), No. 2, February 2013, pp. 337-350.
WWW Link. 1302
BibRef

Su, B.[Bolan], Lu, S.J.[Shi-Jian], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Robust Document Image Binarization Technique for Degraded Document Images,
IP(22), No. 4, April 2013, pp. 1408-1417.
IEEE DOI 1303
BibRef
Earlier:
Combination of Document Image Binarization Techniques,
ICDAR11(22-26).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Lu, S.J.[Shi-Jian], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Binarization of Badly Illuminated Document Images through Shading Estimation and Compensation,
ICDAR07(312-316).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Beauchemin, M.,
Image thresholding based on semivariance,
PRL(34), No. 5, 1 April 2013, pp. 456-462.
Elsevier DOI 1303
Image thresholding; Binarization; Multiscale; Variogram; Semivariance BibRef

Lelore, T.[Thibault], Bouchara, F.[Frédéric],
FAIR: A Fast Algorithm for Document Image Restoration,
PAMI(35), No. 8, 2013, pp. 2039-2048.
IEEE DOI 1307
BibRef
Earlier:
Document Image Binarisation Using Markov Field Model,
ICDAR09(551-555).
IEEE DOI 0907
Image edge detection; Image enhancement; image edge detection BibRef

Ramírez-Ortegón, M.A.[Marte A.], Märgner, V.[Volker], Cuevas, E.[Erik], Rojas, R.[Raúl],
An optimization for binarization methods by removing binary artifacts,
PRL(34), No. 11, 1 August 2013, pp. 1299-1306.
Elsevier DOI 1306
Historical documents; Threshold; Denoising; Binarization; Minimum error rate; Bayes theory BibRef

Ramírez-Ortegón, M.A.[Marte A.], Ramírez-Ramírez, L.L.[Lilia L.], Märgner, V.[Volker], Ben Messaoud, I.[Ines], Cuevas, E.[Erik], Rojas, R.[Raúl],
An analysis of the transition proportion for binarization in handwritten historical documents,
PR(47), No. 8, 2014, pp. 2635-2651.
Elsevier DOI 1405
Threshold BibRef

Ramírez-Ortegón, M.A.[Marte A.], Ramírez-Ramírez, L.L.[Lilia L.], Ben Messaoud, I.[Ines], Märgner, V.[Volker], Cuevas, E.[Erik], Rojas, R.[Raúl],
A model for the gray-intensity distribution of historical handwritten documents and its application for binarization,
IJDAR(17), No. 2, June 2014, pp. 139-160.
Springer DOI 1407
BibRef

Howe, N.R.[Nicholas R.],
Document binarization with automatic parameter tuning,
IJDAR(16), No. 3, September 2013, pp. 247-258.
Springer DOI 1309
BibRef
And: Erratum: IJDAR(16), No. 3, September 2013, pp. 259.
Springer DOI 1309
BibRef

Abbasi, N.[Naeem], Athow, J.[Jacques], Amer, A.[Aishy],
Modified stable Euler-number algorithm implementation for real-time image binarization,
RealTimeIP(9), No. 1, March 2014, pp. 31-45.
WWW Link. 1403
BibRef
Earlier:
Real-time FPGA architecture of modified Stable Euler-Number algorithm for image binarization,
ICIP09(3253-3256).
IEEE DOI 0911
BibRef

Farias, R.C., Moisan, E., Brossier, J.M.,
Optimal Asymmetric Binary Quantization for Estimation Under Symmetrically Distributed Noise,
SPLetters(21), No. 5, May 2014, pp. 523-526.
IEEE DOI 1404
parameter estimation BibRef

Namane, A., Guessoum, A., Soubari, E.H., Meyrueis, P.,
CSM neural network for degraded printed character optical recognition,
JVCIR(25), No. 5, 2014, pp. 1171-1186.
Elsevier DOI 1406
Component BibRef

Hoang, T.V.[Thai V.], Smith, E.H.B.[Elisa H. Barney], Tabbone, S.A.[Salvatore A.],
Sparsity-based edge noise removal from bilevel graphical document images,
IJDAR(17), No. 2, June 2014, pp. 161-179.
Springer DOI 1407
BibRef
Earlier:
Edge noise removal in bilevel graphical document images using sparse representation,
ICIP11(3549-3552).
IEEE DOI 1201
BibRef

Nafchi, H.Z.[Hossein Ziaei], Moghaddam, R.F.[Reza Farrahi], Cheriet, M.[Mohamed],
Phase-Based Binarization of Ancient Document Images: Model and Applications,
IP(23), No. 7, July 2014, pp. 2916-2930.
IEEE DOI 1407
BibRef
Earlier:
Application of Phase-Based Features and Denoising in Postprocessing and Binarization of Historical Document Images,
ICDAR13(220-224)
IEEE DOI 1312
BibRef
Earlier:
Historical Document Binarization Based on Phase Information of Images,
eHeritage12(II:1-12).
Springer DOI 1304
Degradation. document image processing BibRef

Moghaddam, R.F., Moghaddam, F.F., Cheriet, M.,
Unsupervised Ensemble of Experts (EoE) Framework for Automatic Binarization of Document Images,
ICDAR13(703-707)
IEEE DOI 1312
document image processing BibRef

Nafchi, H.Z., Ayatollahi, S.M., Moghaddam, R.F., Cheriet, M.,
An Efficient Ground Truthing Tool for Binarization of Historical Manuscripts,
ICDAR13(807-811)
IEEE DOI 1312
document image processing BibRef

Hedjam, R., Cheriet, M.,
Ground-Truth Estimation in Multispectral Representation Space: Application to Degraded Document Image Binarization,
ICDAR13(190-194)
IEEE DOI 1312
document image processing BibRef

Lazzara, G.[Guillaume], Géraud, T.[Thierry],
Efficient multiscale Sauvola's binarization,
IJDAR(17), No. 2, June 2014, pp. 105-123.
WWW Link. 1407
See also Adaptive document image binarization. BibRef

Singh, B.M.[Brij Mohan], Sharma, R.[Rahul], Ghosh, D.[Debashis], Mittal, A.[Ankush],
Adaptive binarization of severely degraded and non-uniformly illuminated documents,
IJDAR(17), No. 4, December 2014, pp. 393-412.
Springer DOI 1411
BibRef

J, J.R.[J. Ranjani],
Bi-level thresholding for binarisation of handwritten and printed documents,
IET-CV(9), No. 1, 2015, pp. 41-50.
DOI Link 1504
divide and conquer methods BibRef

Shaikh, S.H.[Soharab Hossain], Dey, A.[Ayan], Saeed, K.[Khalid], Chaki, N.[Nabendu],
On creation of reference image for degraded documents binarisation,
IJCVR(5), No. 2, 2015, pp. 155-180.
DOI Link 1505
BibRef

Mitianoudis, N.[Nikolaos], Papamarkos, N.[Nikolaos],
Document image binarization using local features and Gaussian mixture modeling,
IVC(38), No. 1, 2015, pp. 33-51.
Elsevier DOI 1506
BibRef
Earlier:
Multi-spectral document image binarization using image fusion and background subtraction techniques,
ICIP14(5172-5176)
IEEE DOI 1502
Binarization. Clustering algorithms BibRef

Wagdy, M.[Marian], Faye, I.[Ibrahima], Rohaya, D.[Dayang],
Document Image Binarization Using Retinex and Global Thresholding,
ELCVIA(14), No. 1, 2015, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 1505
BibRef

Bag, S.[Soumen], Bhowmick, P.[Partha],
Adaptive-interpolative binarization with stroke preservation for restoration of faint characters in degraded documents,
JVCIR(31), No. 1, 2015, pp. 266-281.
Elsevier DOI 1508
Adaptive thresholding BibRef

Bag, S.[Soumen], Bhowmick, P.[Partha], Behera, P.[Priyaranjan], Harit, G.[Gaurav],
Robust binarization of degraded documents using adaptive-cum-interpolative thresholding in a multi-scale framework,
ICIIP11(1-6).
IEEE DOI 1112
BibRef

Ahmadi, E.[Ehsan], Azimifar, Z.[Zohreh], Shams, M.[Maryam], Famouri, M.[Mahmoud], Shafiee, M.J.[Mohammad Javad],
Document image binarization using a discriminative structural classifier,
PRL(63), No. 1, 2015, pp. 36-42.
Elsevier DOI 1508
Document image binarization BibRef

Hedjam, R., Nafchi, H.Z., Kalacska, M., Cheriet, M.,
Influence of Color-to-Gray Conversion on the Performance of Document Image Binarization: Toward a Novel Optimization Problem,
IP(24), No. 11, November 2015, pp. 3637-3651.
IEEE DOI 1509
document image processing BibRef

Abedi, A., Kabir, E.,
Stroke width-based directional total variation regularisation for document image super resolution,
IET-IPR(10), No. 2, 2016, pp. 158-166.
DOI Link 1602
Bayes methods BibRef

Sen, A., Islam, M.M., Murase, K., Yao, X.,
Binarization With Boosting and Oversampling for Multiclass Classification,
Cyber(46), No. 5, May 2016, pp. 1078-1091.
IEEE DOI 1604
Boosting BibRef

Belhedi, A., Marcotegui, B.,
Adaptive scene-text binarisation on images captured by smartphones,
IET-IPR(10), No. 7, 2016, pp. 515-523.
DOI Link 1608
feature extraction BibRef

Liu, M.[Maofu], Liu, Y.[Ya], Liu, Z.G.[Zhen-Guang], Hu, H.J.[Hui-Jun], Fang, W.[Wei],
Pooling-Based Quantitative Approach to Evaluating Binarization Algorithms,
MultMedMag(24), No. 1, January 2017, pp. 86-92.
IEEE DOI 1702
Algorithm design and analysis BibRef

Mishra, A.[Anand], Alahari, K.[Karteek], Jawahar, C.V.,
Unsupervised refinement of color and stroke features for text binarization,
IJDAR(20), No. 2, June 2017, pp. 105-121.
Springer DOI 1706
BibRef

Hadjadj, Z.[Zineb], Cheriet, M.[Mohamed], Meziane, A.[Abdelkrim], Cherfa, Y.[Yazid],
A new efficient binarization method: Application to degraded historical document images,
SIViP(11), No. 6, September 2017, pp. 1155-1162.
Springer DOI 1708
BibRef

Ho, A.K.N.[Anh Khoi Ngo], Eglin, V.[Véronique], Ragot, N.[Nicolas], Ramel, J.Y.[Jean-Yves],
A multi-one-class dynamic classifier for adaptive digitization of document streams,
IJDAR(20), No. 3, September 2017, pp. 137-154.
Springer DOI 1708
BibRef


Das, A., Chowdhury, S.,
Adaptive method for multi colored text binarization,
WSSIP17(1-5)
IEEE DOI 1707
Image color analysis, Image edge detection, Mathematical model, Optical character recognition software, Text analysis, Color document binarization, Dynamic thresholding, Text, binarization BibRef

Ayyalasomayajula, K.R.[Kalyan Ram], Brun, A.[Anders],
Historical Document Binarization Combining Semantic Labeling and Graph Cuts,
SCIA17(I: 386-396).
Springer DOI 1706
BibRef

Huynh, L.D.[Lê Duy], Xu, Y.C.[Yong-Chao], Géraud, T.[Thierry],
Morphology-based hierarchical representation with application to text segmentation in natural images,
ICPR16(4029-4034)
IEEE DOI 1705
Image segmentation, Interpolation, Labeling, Laplace equations, Level set, Robustness, Shape, Document Binarization, Mathematical Morphology, Non-linear Laplace Operator, Text Segmentation, Tree, of, Shapes BibRef

Ekštein, K.[Kamil],
Simple and Efficient Method of Low-Contrast Grayscale Image Binarization,
ICCVG16(142-150).
Springer DOI 1611
BibRef

Hadjadj, Z.[Zineb], Meziane, A.[Abdelkrim], Cherfa, Y.[Yazid], Cheriet, M.[Mohamed], Setitra, I.[Insaf],
ISauvola: Improved Sauvola's Algorithm for Document Image Binarization,
ICIAR16(737-745).
Springer DOI 1608
BibRef

Khodadadi, E., Kanan, H.R.,
Which super-resolution algorithm is proper for Farsi text image sequences,
IPRIA15(1-4)
IEEE DOI 1603
image denoising BibRef

Al-Khawand, W., Kadry, S., Bozzo, R., Smaili, K.,
Accurate, swift and noiseless image binarization,
ICCVIA15(1-6)
IEEE DOI 1603
image colour analysis BibRef

Hu, P.[Ping], Wang, W.Q.[Wei-Qiang], Lu, K.[Ke],
A novel binarization approach for text in images,
ICIP15(956-960)
IEEE DOI 1511
Character extraction BibRef

Djema, A.[Amina], Chibani, Y.[Youcef], Sehad, A.[Abdenour], Zemouri, E.T.[ET-Tahir],
Blind versus unblind performance evaluation of binarization methods,
ICDAR15(511-515)
IEEE DOI 1511
binarization BibRef

Kesiman, M.W.A.[Made Windu Antara], Prum, S.[Sophea], Burie, J.C.[Jean-Christophe], Ogier, J.M.[Jean-Marc],
Study on feature extraction methods for character recognition of Balinese script on palm leaf manuscript images,
ICPR16(4017-4022)
IEEE DOI 1705
BibRef
Earlier:
An initial study on the construction of ground truth binarized images of ancient palm leaf manuscripts,
ICDAR15(656-660)
IEEE DOI 1511
Character recognition, Feature extraction, Gray-scale, Histograms, Image edge detection, Robustness, Shape, Balinese script, character recognition, feature extraction, palm leaf manuscript, performance, evaluation. binarization BibRef

Shi, C.[Cunzhao], Wang, Y.[Yanna], Xiao, B.H.[Bai-Hua], Wang, C.H.[Chun-Heng],
OTSU guided adaptive binarization of CAPTCHA image using gamma correction,
ICPR16(3962-3967)
IEEE DOI 1705
BibRef
And: A2, A1, A3, A4:
MRF based text binarization in complex images using stroke feature,
ICDAR15(821-825)
IEEE DOI 1511
CAPTCHAs, Color, Image coding, Image segmentation, Market research, Optical character recognition software, Standards. MRF; binarization; stroke; sub-image; text image; weight BibRef

Moghaddam, R.F.[Reza Farrahi], Cheriet, M.[Mohamed],
A multiple-expert binarization framework for multispectral images,
ICDAR15(321-325)
IEEE DOI 1511
Ancient Manuscripts; Binarization; Multispectral BibRef

Lins, R.D.[Rafael Dueire], Pereira e Silva, G.D.[Gabriel De_Franca], de Almeida, M.M.[Marcos Martins],
Binarizing complex scanned documents,
ICDAR15(56-60)
IEEE DOI 1511
Document; binarization; dithering; scanned image BibRef

Hollaus, F.[Fabian], Diem, M.[Markus], Sablatnig, R.[Robert],
Binarization of Multi-Spectral Document Images,
CAIP15(II:109-120).
Springer DOI 1511
BibRef

Villegas, M.[Mauricio], Romero, V.[Verónica], Sánchez, J.A.[Joan Andreu],
On the Modification of Binarization Algorithms to Retain Grayscale Information for Handwritten Text Recognition,
IbPRIA15(208-215).
Springer DOI 1506
BibRef

Kumar, J.[Jayant], Maltz, M.[Martin], Bala, R.[Raja],
Flash/no-flash fusion for mobile document image binarization,
ICIP14(5871-5875)
IEEE DOI 1502
Image resolution BibRef

Biswas, B.[Barun], Bhattacharya, U.[Ujjwal], Chaudhuri, B.B.[Bidyut B.],
A Global-to-Local Approach to Binarization of Degraded Document Images,
ICPR14(3008-3013)
IEEE DOI 1412
Degradation BibRef

Lech, P.[Piotr], Okarma, K.[Krzysztof],
Fast Histogram Based Image Binarization Using the Monte Carlo Threshold Estimation,
ICCVG14(382-390).
Springer DOI 1410
BibRef

Mandal, S.[Sayan], Biswas, S.[Samit], Das, A.K.[Amit Kumar], Chanda, B.[Bhabatosh],
Binarisation of Colour Map Images through Extraction of Regions,
ICCVG14(418-427).
Springer DOI 1410
BibRef

Ghosh, S., Bag, S.,
An improvement on thinning to handle characters with noisy contour,
NCVPRIPG13(1-4)
IEEE DOI 1408
document image processing BibRef

Kherada, S., Namboodiri, A.M.,
An ICA Based Approach for Complex Color Scene Text Binarization,
ACPR13(125-129)
IEEE DOI 1408
document image processing BibRef

Afzal, M.Z.[Muhammad Zeshan], Krämer, M.[Martin], Bukhari, S.S.[Syed Saqib], Yousefi, M.R.[Mohammad Reza], Shafait, F.[Faisal], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
Robust Binarization of Stereo and Monocular Document Images Using Percentile Filter,
CBDAR13(139-149).
Springer DOI 1404
BibRef

Rangoni, Y.[Yves], Shafait, F.[Faisal], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
OCR Based Thresholding,
MVA09(98-).
PDF File. 0905
BibRef

Xue, H.T.[Hai-Tao], Bouman, C.A.[Charles A.], Bauer, P.[Peter], Depalov, D.[Dejan], Bradburn, B.M.[Brent M.], Allebach, J.P.[Jan P.],
Document image binarization via one-pass local classification,
ICIP13(2299-2303)
IEEE DOI 1402
binarization;local classification;one-pass BibRef

Ren, J.F.[Jian-Feng], Jiang, X.D.[Xu-Dong], Yuan, J.S.[Jun-Song],
Learning binarized pixel-difference pattern for scene recognition,
ICIP13(2494-2498)
IEEE DOI 1402
Binarized Pixel-difference Pattern BibRef

Hebert, D., Nicolas, S., Paquet, T.,
Discrete CRF Based Combination Framework for Document Image Binarization,
ICDAR13(1165-1169)
IEEE DOI 1312
document image processing BibRef

Chattopadhyay, T., Reddy, V.R., Garain, U.,
Automatic Selection of Binarization Method for Robust OCR,
ICDAR13(1170-1174)
IEEE DOI 1312
document image processing BibRef

Shirai, K., Endo, Y., Kitadai, A., Inoue, S., Kurushima, N., Baba, H., Watanabe, A., Nakagawa, M.,
Character Shape Restoration of Binarized Historical Documents by Smoothing via Geodesic Morphology,
ICDAR13(1285-1289)
IEEE DOI 1312
differential geometry BibRef

Seki, M., Asano, E., Yasue, T., Nagayoshi, H., Shinjo, H., Nagasaki, T.,
Color Drop-Out Binarization Method for Document Images with Color Shift,
ICDAR13(123-127)
IEEE DOI 1312
cameras BibRef

Milyaev, S., Barinova, O., Novikova, T., Kohli, P., Lempitsky, V.,
Image Binarization for End-to-End Text Understanding in Natural Images,
ICDAR13(128-132)
IEEE DOI 1312
image recognition BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A., Margner, V., Rojas, R., Cuevas, E.,
An Objective Method to Evaluate Stroke-Width Measures for Binarized Documents,
ICDAR13(175-179)
IEEE DOI 1312
document handling BibRef

Roe, E., Mello, C.A.B.,
Binarization of Color Historical Document Images Using Local Image Equalization and XDoG,
ICDAR13(205-209)
IEEE DOI 1312
Gaussian processes BibRef

Parker, J., Frieder, O., Frieder, G.,
Automatic Enhancement and Binarization of Degraded Document Images,
ICDAR13(210-214)
IEEE DOI 1312
document image processing BibRef

Peng, X.J.[Xu-Jun], Cao, H.G.[Huai-Gu], Subramanian, K., Prasad, R., Natarajan, P.,
Exploiting Stroke Orientation for CRF Based Binarization of Historical Documents,
ICDAR13(1034-1038)
IEEE DOI 1312
document image processing BibRef

Roy, S.[Sangheeta], Shivakumara, P.[Palaiahnakote], Roy, P.P.[Partha Pratim], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Wavelet-gradient-fusion for video text binarization,
ICPR12(3300-3303).
WWW Link. 1302
BibRef

Su, B.[Bolan], Lu, S.[Shijian], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
A learning framework for degraded document image binarization using Markov Random Field,
ICPR12(3200-3203).
WWW Link. 1302
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Yang, J.F.[Ju-Feng], Wang, K.[Kai], Li, J.[Jiaofeng], Jiao, J.[Jiao], Xu, J.[Jing],
A fast adaptive binarization method for complex scene images,
ICIP12(1889-1892).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Yang, J.F.[Ju-Feng], Wang, K.[Kai], Jiao, J.[Jiao], Xu, J.[Jing],
An improved binarization method using inter- and intra-block features for natural images,
ICIP12(1885-1888).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Sari, T.[Toufik], Kefali, A.[Abderhmane], Bahi, H.[Halima],
An MLP for Binarizing Images of Old Manuscripts,
FHR12(247-251).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Shaus, A.[Arie], Turkel, E.[Eli], Piasetzky, E.[Eli],
Binarization of First Temple Period Inscriptions: Performance of Existing Algorithms and a New Registration Based Scheme,
FHR12(645-650).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Nafchi, H.Z.[Hossein Ziaei], Kanan, H.R.[Hamidreza Rashidy],
A Phase Congruency Based Document Binarization,
ICISP12(113-121).
Springer DOI 1208
BibRef

Sokratis, V.[Vavilis], Kavallieratou, E.[Ergina],
A Tool for Tuning Binarization Techniques,
ICDAR11(1-5).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Howe, N.R.[Nicholas R.],
A Laplacian Energy for Document Binarization,
ICDAR11(6-10).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Stommel, M., Frieder, G.,
Automatic Estimation of the Legibility of Binarised Historic Documents for Unsupervised Parameter Tuning,
ICDAR11(104-108).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Le, T.H.N.[T. Hoang Ngan], Bui, T.D.[Tien D.], Suen, C.Y.[Ching Y.],
Ternary Entropy-Based Binarization of Degraded Document Images Using Morphological Operators,
ICDAR11(114-118).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Lelore, T.[Thibault], Bouchara, F.[Frederic],
Super-Resolved Binarization of Text Based on the FAIR Algorithm,
ICDAR11(839-843).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Kleber, F.[Florian], Diem, M.[Markus], Sablatnig, R.[Robert],
Scale Space Binarization Using Edge Information Weighted by a Foreground Estimation,
ICDAR11(1180-1184).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Ben Messaoud, I.[Ines], Amiri, H.[Hamid], El Abed, H.[Haikal], Margner, V.[Volker],
Region Based Local Binarization Approach for Handwritten Ancient Documents,
FHR12(633-638).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef
Earlier:
New Binarization Approach Based on Text Block Extraction,
ICDAR11(1205-1209).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Peng, X.[Xujun], Setlur, S.[Srirangaraj], Govindaraju, V.[Venu], Sitaram, R.[Ramachandrula],
Markov random field based binarization for hand-held devices captured document images,
ICCVGIP10(71-76).
DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Pinson, S.J.[Samuel J.], Barrett, W.A.[William A.],
Connected Component Level Discrimination of Handwritten and Machine-Printed Text Using Eigenfaces,
ICDAR11(1394-1398).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Nina, O.[Oliver], Morse, B.[Bryan], Barrett, W.[William],
A recursive Otsu thresholding method for scanned document binarization,
WACV11(307-314).
IEEE DOI 1101
BibRef

Paredes, R.[Roberto], Kavallieratou, E.[Ergina], Lins, R.D.[Rafael Dueire],
ICFHR 2010 Contest: Quantitative Evaluation of Binarization Algorithms,
FHR10(733-736).
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef

Tabatabaei, S.A.[Seyed Amin], Bohlool, M.[Mehdy],
A novel method for binarization of badly illuminated document images,
ICIP10(3573-3576).
IEEE DOI 1009
BibRef

Bolan, S.[Su], Shijian, L.[Lu], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
A Self-Training Learning Document Binarization Framework,
ICPR10(3187-3190).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Wakahara, T.[Toru], Kita, K.[Kohei],
Binarization of Color Character Strings in Scene Images Using K-Means Clustering and Support Vector Machines,
ICDAR11(274-278).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1:
Binarization of Color Characters in Scene Images Using k-means Clustering and Support Vector Machines,
ICPR10(3183-3186).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Zhou, Z.[Zhiwei], Li, L.L.[Lin-Lin], Lim, T.C.[Tan Chew],
Edge Based Binarization for Video Text Images,
ICPR10(133-136).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Merler, M.[Michele], Kender, J.R.[John R.],
Semantic keyword extraction via adaptive text binarization of unstructured unsourced video,
ICIP09(261-264).
IEEE DOI 0911
BibRef

Lu, Z.[Zheng], Wu, Z.[Zheng], Brown, M.S.[Michael S.],
Interactive degraded document binarization: An example (and case) for interactive computer vision,
WACV09(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0912
BibRef

Alginahi, Y.M.,
Thesholding and Character Recognition in Security Documents with Watermarked Background,
DICTA08(220-225).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Rao, A.V.S.[A. Venkata Srinivasa], Sreenivasu, T.[Tinnathi], Rao, N.V.[Nenkkanti Venkata], Sastry, A.S.C.S., Reddy, L.P.[L. Pratap], Prabhu, T.S.K.[T.S. Krishna],
Binarization of Documents with Complex Backgrounds,
ICMV09(8-12).
IEEE DOI 0912
BibRef

Rao, A.V.S.[A. Venkata Srinivasa], Sunil, G.[Golla], Rao, N.V.[Nenkkanti Venkata], Prabhu, T.S.K.[T.S. Krishna], Reddy, L.P.[L. Pratap], Sastry, A.S.C.S.,
Adaptive Binarization of Ancient Documents,
ICMV09(22-26).
IEEE DOI 0912
BibRef

Tong, L.J.[Li-Jing], Chen, K.[Kan], Zhang, Y.[Yan], Fu, X.L.[Xiao-Ling], Duan, J.Y.[Jian-Yong],
Document Image Binarization Based on NFCM,
CISP09(1-5).
IEEE DOI 0910
BibRef

Jiang, A.[Aiweng], Wang, C.H.[Chun-Heng], Xiao, B.H.[Bai-Hua], Dai, R.W.[Ru-Wei],
A New Biologically Inspired Feature for Scene Image Classification,
ICPR10(758-761).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Cheng, G.[Gang], Wang, C.H.[Chun-Heng], Xiao, B.H.[Bai-Hua], Jiang, A.[Aiweng],
A New Data Transformation Method Based on Adaptive Binarization for Bag-of-Features Model,
CISP09(1-5).
IEEE DOI 0910
BibRef

Fang, X.[Xu], Liu, C.P.[Chun-Ping], Gong, S.R.[Sheng-Rong], Ji, Y.[Yi],
Object Detection in Dynamic Scenes Based on Codebook with Superpixels,
ACPR13(430-434)
IEEE DOI 1408
computational complexity BibRef

Zhou, S.F.[Shuang-Fei], Liu, C.P.[Chun-Ping], Cui, Z.M.[Zhi-Ming], Gong, S.R.[Sheng-Rong],
An Improved Adaptive Document Image Binarization Method,
CISP09(1-5).
IEEE DOI 0910
BibRef

Saund, E.[Eric], Lin, J.[Jing], Sarkar, P.[Prateek],
PixLabeler: User Interface for Pixel-Level Labeling of Elements in Document Images,
ICDAR09(646-650).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Sarkar, P.[Prateek], Saund, E.[Eric], Lin, J.[Jing],
Classifying Foreground Pixels in Document Images,
ICDAR09(641-645).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Konya, I.[Iuliu], Seibert, C.[Christoph], Eickeler, S.[Stefan], Glahn, S.[Sebastian],
Constant-Time Locally Optimal Adaptive Binarization,
ICDAR09(738-742).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Kuk, J.G.[Jung Gap], Cho, N.I.[Nam Ik],
Feature Based Binarization of Document Images Degraded by Uneven Light Condition,
ICDAR09(748-752).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Ntirogiannis, K.[Konstantinos], Gatos, B.[Basilis], Pratikakis, I.E.[Ioannis E.],
A Modified Adaptive Logical Level Binarization Technique for Historical Document Images,
ICDAR09(1171-1175).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Tanaka, H.[Hiroshi],
Threshold Correction of Document Image Binarization for Ruled-line Extraction,
ICDAR09(541-545).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Cherala, S.[Sridhar], Rege, P.P.[Priti P.],
Palm Leaf Manuscript/Color Document image Enhancement by Using Improved Adaptive Binarization Method,
ICCVGIP08(687-692).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Stathis, P.[Pavlos], Kavallieratou, E.[Ergina], Papamarkos, N.[Nikos],
An evaluation survey of binarization algorithms on historical documents,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Navon, Y.[Yaakov], Kluzner, V.[Vladimir], Ophir, B.[Boaz],
Enhanced Active Contour Method for Locating Text,
ICDAR11(222-226).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Navon, Y.[Yaakov],
Layer-based binarization for textual images,
ICPR08(1-5).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Garain, U.[Utpal], Jain, A.[Atishay], Maity, A.[Anjan], Chanda, B.[Bhabatosh],
Machine reading of camera-held low quality text images: An ICA-based image enhancement approach for improving OCR accuracy,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Cecotti, H.[Hubert], Belad, A.[Abdel],
Dynamic filters selection for textual document image binarization,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
See also Rejection strategy for convolutional neural network by adaptive topology applied to handwritten digits recognition. BibRef

Zhu, Y.P.[Yuan-Ping],
Augment document image binarization by learning,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Kuk, J.G.[Jung Gap], Cho, N.I.[Nam Ik], Lee, K.M.[Kyoung Mu],
MAP-MRF approach for binarization of degraded document image,
ICIP08(2612-2615).
IEEE DOI 0810
BibRef

Cooksey, E.[Erica], Withers, W.D.[W. Douglas],
Rapid image binarization with morphological operators,
ICIP08(1017-1020).
IEEE DOI 0810
BibRef

Abirami, S., Manjula, D.,
Text Region Extraction from Quality Degraded Document Images,
PReMI07(519-527).
Springer DOI 0712
BibRef

Xi, Y.[Yan], Chen, Y.B.[You-Bin], Liao, Q.M.[Qing-Min], Leung, W.H.[Wing-Hong], Fung, S.M.[Shun-Ming], Deng, J.W.[Jiang-Wen],
A Novel Binarization System for Degraded Document Images,
ICDAR07(287-291).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Saidane, Z.[Zohra], Garcia, C.[Christophe],
An Automatic Method for Video Character Segmentation,
ICIAR08(xx-yy).
Springer DOI 0806
BibRef
Earlier:
Robust Binarization for Video Text Recognition,
ICDAR07(874-879).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Chen, Y.K.[Yu-Kumg], Chang, Y.F.[Yi-Fan],
Two Thresholding for Deriving the Bi-Level Document Image,
PSIVT06(228-237).
Springer DOI 0612
BibRef

Cavalcanti, G.D.C., Silva, E.F.A., Zanchettin, C., Bezerra, B.L.D., Doria, R.C., Rabelo, J.C.B.,
A Heuristic Binarization Algorithm for Documents with Complex Background,
ICIP06(389-392).
IEEE DOI 0610
BibRef

Zhu, Y.P.[Yuan-Ping], Wang, C.H.[Chun-Heng], Dai, R.W.[Ru-Wei],
Document Image Binarization Based on Stroke Enhancement,
ICPR06(I: 955-958).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Antonacopoulos, A., Castilla, C.C.[C. Casado],
Flexible Text Recovery from Degraded Typewritten Historical Documents,
ICPR06(II: 1062-1065).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Kavallieratou, E.[Ergina], Stathis, S.[Stamatatos],
Adaptive Binarization of Historical Document Images,
ICPR06(III: 742-745).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Li, Y.[Yun], Cheriet, M.[Mohamed], Suen, C.Y.,
A threshlod selection method based on multiscale and graylevel co-occurrence matrix analysis,
ICDAR05(II: 575-578).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Yokobayashi, M.[Minoru], Wakahara, T.[Toru],
Binarization and Recognition of Degraded Characters Using a Maximum Separability Axis in Color Space and GAT Correlation,
ICPR06(II: 885-888).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef
Earlier:
Segmentation and recognition of characters in scene images using selective binarization in color space and GAT correlation,
ICDAR05(I: 167-171).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Wakahara, T.[Toru],
Figure-ground discrimination and distortion-tolerant recognition of color characters in scene images,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Wakahara, T.[Toru], Uchida, S.[Seiichi],
Hierarchical Decomposition of Handwriting Deformation Vector Field for Improving Recognition Accuracy,
ICPR10(1860-1863).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef
Earlier:
Hierarchical Decomposition of Handwriting Deformation Vector Field Using 2D Warping and Global/Local Affine Transformation,
ICDAR09(1141-1145).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Kohmura, H.[Hanako], Wakahara, T.[Toru],
Determining Optimal Filters for Binarization of Degraded Characters in Color Using Genetic Algorithms,
ICPR06(III: 661-664).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Ojima, Y., Kirigaya, S., Wakahara, T.,
Determining optimal filters for binarization of degraded grayscale characters using genetic algorithms,
ICDAR05(II: 555-559).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Kavallieratou, E.,
A binarization algorithm specialized on document images and photos,
ICDAR05(I: 463-467).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Hamza, H., Smigiel, E., Belaid, E.,
Neural based binarization techniques,
ICDAR05(I: 317-321).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Gabarra, E.[Elise], Tabbone, A.[Antoine],
Combining Global and Local Threshold to Binarize Document of Images,
IbPRIA05(II:371).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Sun, Y.F.[Yu-Fei], Chen, Y.[Yan], Zhang, Y.Z.[Yu-Zhi], Li, Y.X.[Yan-Xia],
Automated Seeded Region Growing Method for Document Image Binarization Based on Topographic Features,
ICIAR04(II: 200-208).
Springer DOI 0409
BibRef

Woo, Y.W.[Young W.],
Performance Evaluation of Binarizations of Scanned Insect Footprints,
IWCIA04(669-678).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef

Seeger, M., Dance, C.,
Binarising camera images for OCR,
ICDAR01(54-58).
IEEE DOI 0109
BibRef

Fan, L., Tan, C., Fan, L.,
Edge-preserving Prefiltering for Document Image Binarization,
ICIP01(I: 1070-1073).
IEEE DOI 0108
BibRef

Wang, S.Z.[Shen-Zheng], Lee, H.J.[Hsi-Jian],
Dual-binarization and anisotropic diffusion of Chinese characters in calligraphy documents,
ICDAR01(271-275).
IEEE DOI 0109
BibRef

Sánchez-Valverde, J.,
Optimum Binarization of Technical Document Images,
ICIP00(Vol III: 985-988).
IEEE DOI 0008
BibRef

Sankur, B., Abak, A.T., Baris, U.,
Assessment of Thresholding Algorithms for Document Processing,
ICIP99(I:580-584).
IEEE DOI BibRef 9900

Greene, D., Yao, F., Zhang, T.[Tong],
A linear algorithm for optimal context clustering with application to bi-level image coding,
ICIP98(I: 508-511).
IEEE DOI 9810
BibRef

Kuo, S.S., Ranganath, M.V.,
Real time image enhancement for both text and color photo images,
ICIP95(I: 159-162).
IEEE DOI 9510
BibRef

Eikvil, L., Taxt, T., and Moen, K.,
A Fast Adaptive Method for Binarization of Document Images,
ICDAR91(435-443). Comparison: See also Evaluation of Binarization Methods for Document Images. BibRef 9100

Babaguchi, N., Yamada, K., Kise, K., Tezuka, Y.,
Connectionist model binarization,
ICPR90(II: 51-56).
IEEE DOI 9208
BibRef

Bernsen, J.,
Dynamic Thresholding of Grey-Level Images,
ICPR86(1251-1255). Comparison: See also Evaluation of Binarization Methods for Document Images. BibRef 8600

Chapter on OCR, Document Analysis and Character Recognition Systems continues in
Chinese and Kanji Characters .


Last update:Sep 18, 2017 at 11:34:11