23.2.7.1 Formulas, Equations, Mathematical Expressions, Mathematical Symbols

Chapter Contents (Back)
OCR. Equation Recognition. Mathematical Expressions.

Belaid, A., Haton, J.P.,
A Syntactic Approach for Handwritten Mathematical Formula Recognition,
PAMI(6), No. 1, January 1984, pp. 105-111. BibRef 8401

Lee, H.J.[Hsi-Jian], Lee, M.C.[Min-Chou],
Understanding mathematical expressions using procedure-oriented transformation,
PR(27), No. 3, March 1994, pp. 447-457.
WWW Link. 0401
BibRef

Dimitriadis, Y.A., Coronado, J.L.,
Towards an Art Based Mathematical Editor, That Uses Online Handwritten Symbol Recognition,
PR(28), No. 6, June 1995, pp. 807-822.
WWW Link. BibRef 9506

Fateman, R.J., Tokuyasu, T., Berman, B.P., Mitchell, N.,
Optical Character-Recognition and Parsing of Typeset Mathematics,
JVCIR(7), No. 1, March 1996, pp. 2-15. BibRef 9603

Lee, H.J., Wang, J.S.,
Design of a Mathematical Expression Understanding System,
PRL(18), No. 3, March 1997, pp. 289-298. 9706
BibRef

Chan, K.F.[Kam-Fai], Yeung, D.Y.[Dit-Yan],
An efficient syntactic approach to structural analysis of on-line handwritten mathematical expressions,
PR(33), No. 3, March 2000, pp. 375-384.
WWW Link. 0001
BibRef

Chan, K.F.[Kam-Fai], Yeung, D.Y.[Dit-Yan],
Mathematical Expression Recognition: A Survey,
IJDAR(3), No. 1, 2000, pp. 3-15. Survey, Graphics Recognition. BibRef 0001

Chaudhuri, B.B., Garain, U.,
An Approach for Recognition and Interpretation of Mathematical Expressions in Printed Document,
PAA(3), No. 2, 2000, pp. 120-131. 0010
BibRef

Garain, U., Chaudhuri, B.B.,
A Syntactic Approach for Processing Mathematical Expressions in Printed Documents,
ICPR00(Vol IV: 523-526).
IEEE DOI 0009
BibRef

Garain, U., Chaudhuri, B.B.,
Recognition of Online Handwritten Mathematical Expressions,
SMC-B(34), No. 6, December 2004, pp. 2366-2376.
IEEE Abstract. 0412
BibRef
Earlier:
On Machine Understanding of Online Handwritten Mathematical Expressions,
ICDAR03(349-353).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Garain, U., Chaudhuri, B.B., Ghosh, R.P.,
A multiple-classifier system for recognition of printed mathematical symbols,
ICPR04(I: 380-383).
IEEE DOI 0409
BibRef

Garain, U., Chaudhuri, B.B., Chaudhuri, A.R.,
Identification of embedded mathematical expressions in scanned documents,
ICPR04(I: 384-387).
IEEE DOI 0409
BibRef

Mitra, J., Garain, U., Chaudhuri, B.B., Swamy, H.V.K., Pal, T.,
Automatic understanding of structures in printed mathematical expressions,
ICDAR03(540-544).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Chan, K.F.[Kam-Fai], Yeung, D.Y.[Dit-Yan],
Error detection, error correction and performance evaluation in on-line mathematical expression recognition,
PR(34), No. 8, August 2001, pp. 1671-1684.
WWW Link. 0105
BibRef

Kacem, A., Belaïd, A., Ben Ahmed, M.,
Automatic extraction of printed mathematical formulas using fuzzy logic and propagation of context,
IJDAR(4), No. 2 2001, pp. 97-108.
Springer DOI 0201
BibRef
Earlier:
Embedded Formulas Extraction,
ICPR00(Vol I: 676-680).
IEEE DOI 0009
BibRef

Zanibbi, R.[Richard], Blostein, D.[Dorothea], Cordy, J.R.[James R.],
Recognizing Mathematical Expressions Using Tree Transformation,
PAMI(24), No. 11, November 2002, pp. 1455-1467.
IEEE Abstract. 0211
BibRef
Earlier:
Baseline structure analysis of handwritten mathematics notation,
ICDAR01(768-773).
IEEE DOI 0109
Three pass analysis from list of symbols and locations. Layout, Lexical (turn into LaTeX expression), Expression Analysis. BibRef

Zanibbi, R.[Richard], Blostein, D.[Dorothea],
Recognition and retrieval of mathematical expressions,
IJDAR(15), No. 4, December 2012, pp. 331-357.
WWW Link. 1212
BibRef

Hu, L.[Lei], Zanibbi, R.[Richard],
HMM-Based Recognition of Online Handwritten Mathematical Symbols Using Segmental K-Means Initialization and a Modified Pen-Up/Down Feature,
ICDAR11(457-462).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Zanibbi, R.[Richard], Yu, L.[Li],
Math Spotting: Retrieving Math in Technical Documents Using Handwritten Query Images,
ICDAR11(446-451).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Mouchère, H.[Harold], Zanibbi, R.[Richard], Garain, U.[Utpal], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian],
Advancing the state of the art for handwritten math recognition: the CROHME competitions, 2011-2014,
IJDAR(19), No. 2, June 2016, pp. 173-189.
Springer DOI 1605
BibRef

Zanibbi, R.[Richard], Pillay, A.[Amit], Mouchere, H.[Harold], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian], Blostein, D.[Dorothea],
Stroke-Based Performance Metrics for Handwritten Mathematical Expressions,
ICDAR11(334-338).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Zhang, L.[Ling], Blostein, D., Zanibbi, R.,
Using fuzzy logic to analyze superscript and subscript relations in handwritten mathematical expressions,
ICDAR05(II: 972-976).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Garain, U.[Utpal], Chaudhuri, B.B.,
A corpus for OCR research on mathematical expressions,
IJDAR(7), No. 4, September 2005, pp. 241-259.
Springer DOI 0512
BibRef

Vuong, B.Q.[Ba-Quy], Hui, S.C.[Siu-Cheung], He, Y.L.[Yu-Lan],
Progressive structural analysis for dynamic recognition of on-line handwritten mathematical expressions,
PRL(29), No. 5, 1 April 2008, pp. 647-655.
WWW Link. 0802
BibRef
And: Erratum: PRL(29), No. 9, 1 July 2008, pp. 1454.
WWW Link. 0711
Progressive structural analysis; Structural analysis; Mathematical expressions recognition; Mathematical expression tree; Grouping determination BibRef

Malon, C.[Christopher], Uchida, S.[Seiichi], Suzuki, M.[Masakazu],
Mathematical symbol recognition with support vector machines,
PRL(29), No. 9, 1 July 2008, pp. 1326-1332.
WWW Link. 0711
BibRef
Earlier:
Support Vector Machines for Mathematical Symbol Recognition,
SSPR06(136-144).
Springer DOI 0608
Support vector machine; OCR; Mathematical document; Mathematical symbol recognition BibRef

Rhee, T.H.[Taik Heon], Kim, J.H.[Jin Hyung],
Efficient search strategy in structural analysis for handwritten mathematical expression recognition,
PR(42), No. 12, December 2009, pp. 3192-3201.
Elsevier DOI 0909
Handwritten mathematical expression recognition; Structural analysis; Layered search tree; Admissible heuristic; Delayed decision of symbol identity BibRef

Mace, S.[Sebastien], Anquetil, E.[Eric],
Eager interpretation of on-line hand-drawn structured documents: The DALI methodology,
PR(42), No. 12, December 2009, pp. 3202-3214.
Elsevier DOI 0909
On-line structured documents; Hand-drawn shapes; Eager interpretation; Visual grammar; Incremental parsing; Fuzzy set framework BibRef

Aly, W.[Walaa], Uchida, S.[Seiichi], Suzuki, M.[Masakazu],
Automatic Classification of Spatial Relationships among Mathematical Symbols Using Geometric Features,
IEICE(E92-D), No. 11, November 2009, pp. 2235-2243.
WWW Link. 0911
BibRef

Aly, W.[Walaa], Uchida, S.[Seiichi], Fujiyoshi, A.[Akio], Suzuki, M.[Masakazu],
Statistical Classification of Spatial Relationships among Mathematical Symbols,
ICDAR09(1350-1354).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Sain, K.[Kunal], Dasgupta, A.[Abhishek], Garain, U.[Utpal],
EMERS: a tree matching-based performance evaluation of mathematical expression recognition systems,
IJDAR(14), No. 1, March 2011, pp. 75-85.
WWW Link. 1103
BibRef

Luqman, M.M.[Muhammad Muzzamil], Ramel, J.Y.[Jean-Yves], Lladós, J.[Josep], Brouard, T.[Thierry],
Fuzzy multilevel graph embedding,
PR(46), No. 2, February 2013, pp. 551-565.
Elsevier DOI 1210
BibRef
Earlier:
Subgraph Spotting through Explicit Graph Embedding: An Application to Content Spotting in Graphic Document Images,
ICDAR11(870-874).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A4, A2, A3:
A Content Spotting System for Line Drawing Graphic Document Images,
ICPR10(3420-3423).
IEEE DOI 1008
Pattern recognition; Graphics recognition; Graph clustering; Graph classification; Explicit graph embedding; Fuzzy logic BibRef

Luqman, M.M.[Muhammad Muzzamil],
Fuzzy Multilevel Graph Embedding for Recognition, Indexing and Retrieval of Graphic Document Images,
ELCVIA(13), No. 2, 2014, pp. xx-yy.
WWW Link. 1407
Ph.D.. Thesis. BibRef

Luqman, M.M.[Muhammad Muzzamil], Ramel, J.Y.[Jean Yves], Lladós, J.[Josep],
Improving Fuzzy Multilevel Graph Embedding through Feature Selection Technique,
SSSPR12(243-253).
Springer DOI 1211
BibRef

Luqman, M.M.[Muhammad Muzzamil], Brouard, T.[Thierry], Ramel, J.Y.[Jean-Yves],
Graphic Symbol Recognition Using Graph Based Signature and Bayesian Network Classifier,
ICDAR09(1325-1329).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Luqman, M.M.[Muhammad Muzzamil], Lladós, J.[Josep], Ramel, J.Y.[Jean-Yves], Brouard, T.[Thierry],
A Fuzzy-Interval Based Approach for Explicit Graph Embedding,
ICPR-Contests10(93-98).
Springer DOI 1008
BibRef

MacLean, S.[Scott], Labahn, G.[George],
A new approach for recognizing handwritten mathematics using relational grammars and fuzzy sets,
IJDAR(16), No. 2, June 2013, pp. 139-163.
WWW Link. 1306
BibRef

MacLean, S.[Scott], Labahn, G.[George],
A Bayesian model for recognizing handwritten mathematical expressions,
PR(48), No. 8, 2015, pp. 2433-2445.
Elsevier DOI 1505
Math recognition BibRef

Álvaro, F.[Francisco], Sánchez, J.A.[Joan-Andreu], Benedí, J.M.[José-Miguel],
Recognition of on-line handwritten mathematical expressions using 2D stochastic context-free grammars and hidden Markov models,
PRL(35), No. 1, 2014, pp. 58-67.
Elsevier DOI 1312
BibRef
Earlier:
Recognition of Printed Mathematical Expressions Using Two-Dimensional Stochastic Context-Free Grammars,
ICDAR11(1225-1229).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef
And:
An Image-Based Measure for Evaluation of Mathematical Expression Recognition,
IbPRIA13(682-690).
Springer DOI 1307
BibRef
Earlier:
Unbiased Evaluation of Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition,
FHR12(181-186).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A2, Only:
Comparing Several Techniques for Offline Recognition of Printed Mathematical Symbols,
ICPR10(1953-1956).
IEEE DOI 1008
Mathematical expression recognition BibRef

Awal, A.M.[Ahmad-Montaser], Mouchère, H.[Harold], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian],
A global learning approach for an online handwritten mathematical expression recognition system,
PRL(35), No. 1, 2014, pp. 68-77.
Elsevier DOI 1312
Handwriting recognition BibRef

Quiniou, S.[Solen], Mouchere, H.[Harold], Saldarriaga, S.P.[Sebastián Pen], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian], Morin, E.[Emmanuel], Petitrenaud, S.[Simon], Medjkoune, S.[Sofiane],
HAMEX: A Handwritten and Audio Dataset of Mathematical Expressions,
ICDAR11(452-456).
IEEE DOI 1111
Dataset, OCR. BibRef

Medjkoune, S.[Sofiane], Mouchère, H.[Harold], Petitrenaud, S.[Simon], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian],
Combining Speech and Handwriting Modalities for Mathematical Expression Recognition,
HMS(47), No. 2, April 2017, pp. 259-272.
IEEE DOI 1704
BibRef
Earlier:
Using Speech for Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition Disambiguation,
FHR12(187-192).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef
Earlier:
Handwritten and Audio Information Fusion for Mathematical Symbol Recognition,
ICDAR11(379-383).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Lin, X.Y.[Xiao-Yan], Gao, L.C.[Liang-Cai], Tang, Z.[Zhi], Baker, J.B.[Josef B.], Sorge, V.[Volker],
Mathematical formula identification and performance evaluation in PDF documents,
IJDAR(17), No. 3, September 2014, pp. 239-255.
Springer DOI 1408
BibRef

Lin, X.Y.[Xiao-Yan], Gao, L.C.[Liang-Cai], Tang, Z.[Zhi], Baker, J.B., Alkalai, M., Sorge, V.,
A Text Line Detection Method for Mathematical Formula Recognition,
ICDAR13(339-343)
IEEE DOI 1312
image segmentation BibRef

Lin, X.Y.[Xiao-Yan], Gao, L.C.[Liang-Cai], Tang, Z.[Zhi], Lin, X.F.[Xiao-Fan], Hu, X.[Xuan],
Mathematical Formula Identification in PDF Documents,
ICDAR11(1419-1423).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Alkalai, M., Baker, J.B., Sorge, V., Lin, X.Y.[Xiao-Yan],
Improving Formula Analysis with Line and Mathematics Identification,
ICDAR13(334-338)
IEEE DOI 1312
document image processing BibRef

Baker, J.B.[Josef B.], Sexton, A.P.[Alan P.], Sorge, V.[Volker], Suzuki, M.[Masakazu],
Comparing Approaches to Mathematical Document Analysis from PDF,
ICDAR11(463-467).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Hirata, N.S.T.[Nina S.T.], Julca-Aguilar, F.D.[Frank D.],
Matching based ground-truth annotation for online handwritten mathematical expressions,
PR(48), No. 3, 2015, pp. 837-848.
Elsevier DOI 1412
Structural pattern analysis BibRef

Simistira, F.[Fotini], Katsouros, V.[Vassilis], Carayannis, G.[George],
Recognition of online handwritten mathematical formulas using probabilistic SVMs and stochastic context free grammars,
PRL(53), No. 1, 2015, pp. 85-92.
Elsevier DOI 1502
Recognition of mathematical expressions BibRef

Álvaro, F.[Francisco], Sánchez, J.A.[Joan-Andreu], Benedí, J.M.[José-Miguel],
An integrated grammar-based approach for mathematical expression recognition,
PR(51), No. 1, 2016, pp. 135-147.
Elsevier DOI 1601
Mathematical expression recognition BibRef

Setyanto, A.[Arief], Woods, J.[John],
Hierarchical Visual Content Modelling and Query based on Trees,
ELCVIA(15), No. 2, 2016, pp. 40-42.
DOI Link 1611
BibRef

Le, A.D.[Anh Duc], Nakagawa, M.[Masaki],
A system for recognizing online handwritten mathematical expressions by using improved structural analysis,
IJDAR(19), No. 4, December 2016, pp. 305-319.
Springer DOI 1611
BibRef

Nguyen, H.D.[Hai Dai], Le, A.D.[Anh Duc], Nakagawa, M.[Masaki],
Recognition of Online Handwritten Math Symbols Using Deep Neural Networks,
IEICE(E99-D), No. 12, December 2016, pp. 3110-3118.
WWW Link. 1612
BibRef

Zhang, J.S.[Jian-Shu], Du, J.[Jun], Zhang, S.L.[Shi-Liang], Liu, D.[Dan], Hu, Y.L.[Yu-Long], Hu, J.S.[Jin-Shui], Wei, S.[Si], Dai, L.R.[Li-Rong],
Watch, attend and parse: An end-to-end neural network based approach to handwritten mathematical expression recognition,
PR(71), No. 1, 2017, pp. 196-206.
Elsevier DOI 1707
Handwritten, mathematical, expression, recognition BibRef


He, W.H.[Wen-Hao], Luo, Y.X.[Yu-Xuan], Yin, F.[Fei], Hu, H.[Han], Han, J.Y.[Jun-Yu], Ding, E.[Errui], Liu, C.L.[Cheng-Lin],
Context-aware mathematical expression recognition: An end-to-end framework and a benchmark,
ICPR16(3246-3251)
IEEE DOI 1705
Benchmark testing, Context, Hidden Markov models, Image segmentation, Pattern recognition, Pipelines, Training BibRef

Julca-Aguilar, F., Hirata, N.S.T., Mouchère, H., Viard-Gaudin, C.,
Subexpression and dominant symbol histograms for spatial relation classification in mathematical expressions,
ICPR16(3446-3451)
IEEE DOI 1705
Data mining, Electronic mail, Feature extraction, Handwriting recognition, Histograms, Shape BibRef

Chajri, Y., Maarir, A., Bouikhalene, B.,
A Comparative Study of Handwritten Mathematical Symbols Recognition,
CGiV16(448-451)
IEEE DOI 1608
handwritten character recognition BibRef

Ali, I.H., Mahjoub, M.A.,
Database of Handwritten Arabic Mathematical Formula Images,
CGiV16(145-149)
IEEE DOI 1608
handwriting recognition BibRef

Jana, P., Majumdar, A., Layek, A.K., Mandal, S., Das, A.K.,
Automated segmentation and classification of chemical and other equations from document images,
ICAPR15(1-7)
IEEE DOI 1511
chemical engineering computing BibRef

Ghanmi, N.[Nabil], Belaid, A.[Abdel],
Separator and content based approach for table extraction in handwritten chemistry documents,
ICDAR15(296-300)
IEEE DOI 1511
Hough Transform BibRef

Ayeb, K.K.[Kaouther Khazri], Echi, A.K.[Afef Kacem], Belaid, A.[Abdel],
A syntax directed system for the recognition of printed Arabic mathematical formulas,
ICDAR15(186-190)
IEEE DOI 1511
BibRef

Liu, Z.Y.[Zong-Yi], Smith, R.,
A Simple Equation Region Detector for Printed Document Images in Tesseract,
ICDAR13(245-249)
IEEE DOI 1312
document image processing BibRef

Alvaro, F.[Francisco], Sanchez, J.A.[Joan-Andreu], Benedi, J.M.[Jose-Miguel],
Offline Features for Classifying Handwritten Math Symbols with Recurrent Neural Networks,
ICPR14(2944-2949)
IEEE DOI 1412
BibRef
Earlier:
Classification of On-Line Mathematical Symbols with Hybrid Features and Recurrent Neural Networks,
ICDAR13(1012-1016)
IEEE DOI 1312
Databases handwritten character recognition BibRef

Furukori, F., Yamazaki, S., Miyagishi, T., Shirai, K., Okamoto, M.,
An OCR System with OCRopus for Scientific Documents Containing Mathematical Formulas,
ICDAR13(1175-1179)
IEEE DOI 1312
document image processing BibRef

Hu, L.[Lei], Zanibbi, R.,
Segmenting Handwritten Math Symbols Using AdaBoost and Multi-scale Shape Context Features,
ICDAR13(1180-1184)
IEEE DOI 1312
feature extraction BibRef

Tang, P.[Peng], Hui, S.C.[Siu Cheung], Fu, C.W.[Chi-Wing],
Chemical Symbol Feature Set for Handwritten Chemical Symbol Recognition,
SSSPR14(312-322).
Springer DOI 1408
BibRef
Earlier:
A Progressive Structural Analysis Approach for Handwritten Chemical Formula Recognition,
ICDAR13(359-363)
IEEE DOI 1312
bonds (chemical) BibRef

Alkalai, M.[Mohamed],
Recognising Tabular Mathematical Expressions Using Graph Rewriting,
CIARP13(II:124-133).
Springer DOI 1311
BibRef

Hu, L.[Lei], Hart, K.[Kevin], Pospesel, R.[Richard], Zanibbi, R.[Richard],
Baseline extraction-driven Parsing of handwritten mathematical expressions,
ICPR12(326-330).
WWW Link. 1302
BibRef

Simistira, F.[Fotini], Papavassiliou, V.[Vassilis], Katsouros, V.[Vassilis], Carayannis, G.[George],
A System for Recognition of On-Line Handwritten Mathematical Expressions,
FHR12(193-198).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Stria, J.[Jan], Bresler, M.[Martin], Prua, D.[Daniel], Hlavác, V.[Vaclav],
MfrDB: Database of Annotated On-Line Mathematical Formulae,
FHR12(542-547).
IEEE DOI 1302
Dataset, Formula. BibRef

Yamazaki, S.P.[Shin-Pei], Furukori, F.[Fumihiro], Zhao, Q.Z.[Qin-Zheng], Shirai, K.[Keiichiro], Okamoto, M.[Masayuki],
Embedding a Mathematical OCR Module into OCRopus,
ICDAR11(880-884).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Celik, M.U.[Mehmet U.], Yanikoglu, B.A.[Berrin A.],
Probabilistic Mathematical Formula Recognition Using a 2D Context-Free Graph Grammar,
ICDAR11(161-166).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef

Mouchere, H.[Harold], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian], Zanibbi, R., Garain, U.[Utpal], Kim, D.H.[Dae Hwan], Kim, J.H.[Jin Hyung],
ICDAR 2013 CROHME: Third International Competition on Recognition of Online Handwritten Mathematical Expressions,
ICDAR13(1428-1432)
IEEE DOI 1312
handwritten character recognition BibRef

Mouchere, H.[Harold], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian], Kim, D.H.[Dae Hwan], Kim, J.H.[Jin Hyung], Garain, U.[Utpal],
ICFHR 2012 Competition on Recognition of On-Line Mathematical Expressions (CROHME 2012),
FHR12(811-816).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef
Earlier:
CROHME2011: Competition on Recognition of Online Handwritten Mathematical Expressions,
ICDAR11(1497-1500).
IEEE DOI 1111
Evaluation, Symbol Recognition. BibRef

Hirata, N.S.T.[Nina S. T.], Honda, W.Y.[Willian Y.],
Automatic Labeling of Handwritten Mathematical Symbols via Expression Matching,
GbRPR11(295-304).
Springer DOI 1105
BibRef

Genoe, R.[Ray], Kechadi, T.[Tahar],
A Real-Time Recognition System for Handwritten Mathematics: Backtracking and Relationship Discovery,
FHR10(399-404).
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef

Genoe, R.[Ray], Kechadi, T.[Tahar],
A Real-Time Recognition System for Handwritten Mathematics: Structural Development,
FHR10(593-598).
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef

Oliveira, D.M.[Daniel M.], Lins, R.D.[Rafael D.],
Generalizing Tableau to Any Color of Teaching Boards,
ICPR10(2411-2414).
IEEE DOI 1008
Tableau software to process images of white boards from phones. Extend to other colors. BibRef

Wang, X.[Xin], Shi, G.S.[Guang-Shun], Yang, J.F.[Ju-Feng],
The Understanding and Structure Analyzing for Online Handwritten Chemical Formulas,
ICDAR09(1056-1060).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Lapointe, A.[Adrien], Blostein, D.[Dorothea],
Issues in Performance Evaluation: A Case Study of Math Recognition,
ICDAR09(1355-1359).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Garain, U.[Utpal],
Identification of Mathematical Expressions in Document Images,
ICDAR09(1340-1344).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Chang, M.[Ming], Han, S.[Shi], Zhang, D.M.[Dong-Mei],
A Unified Framework for Recognizing Handwritten Chemical Expressions,
ICDAR09(1345-1349).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Santosh, K.C., Lamiroy, B.[Bart], Ropers, J.P.[Jean-Philippe],
Inductive Logic Programming for Symbol Recognition,
ICDAR09(1330-1334).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Santosh, K.C., Lamiroy, B.[Bart], Wendling, L.[Laurent],
DTW for Matching Radon Features: A Pattern Recognition and Retrieval Method,
ACIVS11(249-260).
Springer DOI 1108
BibRef

Santosh, K.C., Wendling, L.[Laurent], Lamiroy, B.[Bart],
Using Spatial Relations for Graphical Symbol Description,
ICPR10(2041-2044).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Santosh, K.C., Nattee, C.[Cholwich], Lamiroy, B.[Bart],
Spatial Similarity Based Stroke Number and Order Free Clustering,
FHR10(652-657).
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef

Fujiyoshi, A.[Akio], Suzuki, M.[Masakazu], Uchida, S.[Seiichi],
Syntactic Detection and Correction of Misrecognitions in Mathematical OCR,
ICDAR09(1360-1364).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Kim, D.H.[Dae Hwan], Kim, J.H.[Jin H.],
Top-Down Search with Bottom-Up Evidence for Recognizing Handwritten Mathematical Expressions,
FHR10(507-512).
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef

Kim, K.[Kang], Rhee, T.H.[Taik Heon], Lee, J.S.[Jae Seung], Kim, J.H.[Jin Hyung],
Utilizing Consistency Context for Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition,
ICDAR09(1051-1055).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Julca-Aguilar, F.[Frank], Mouchère, H.[Harold], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian], Hirata, N.S.T.[Nina S. T.],
Top-Down Online Handwritten Mathematical Expression Parsing with Graph Grammar,
CIARP15(444-451).
Springer DOI 1511
BibRef

Awal, A.M.[Ahmad-Montaser], Mouchère, H.[Harold], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian],
Improving Online Handwritten Mathematical Expressions Recognition with Contextual Modeling,
FHR10(427-432).
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef
And:
The Problem of Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition Evaluation,
FHR10(646-651).
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef
Earlier:
Towards Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition,
ICDAR09(1046-1050).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Marinai, S.[Simone], Miotti, B.[Beatrice], Soda, G.[Giovanni],
Using Earth Mover's Distance in the Bag-of-Visual-Words Model for Mathematical Symbol Retrieval,
ICDAR11(1309-1313).
IEEE DOI 1111
BibRef
Earlier:
Mathematical Symbol Indexing Using Topologically Ordered Clusters of Shape Contexts,
ICDAR09(1041-1045).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Le Bodic, P.[Pierre], Locteau, H.[Hervé], Adam, S.[Sébastien], Héroux, P.[Pierre], Lecourtier, Y.[Yves], Knippel, A.[Arnaud],
Symbol Detection Using Region Adjacency Graphs and Integer Linear Programming,
ICDAR09(1320-1324).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Yang, J.F.[Ju-Feng], Shi, G.S.[Guang-Shun], Wang, K.[Kai], Geng, Q.[Qian], Wang, Q.R.[Qing-Ren],
A study of on-line handwritten chemical expressions recognition,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Pruša, D.[Daniel], Hlavác, V.[Václav],
Structural Construction for On-Line Mathematical Formulae Recognition,
CIARP08(317-324).
Springer DOI 0809
BibRef
Earlier:
Mathematical Formulae Recognition Using 2D Grammars,
ICDAR07(849-853).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Fitzgerald, J., Geiselbrechtinger, F., Kechadi, T.,
Mathpad: A Fuzzy Logic-Based Recognition System for Handwritten Mathematics,
ICDAR07(694-698).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Shi, Y.[Yu], Soong, F.K.[Frank K.],
A symbol graph based handwritten math expression recognition,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Shi, Y.[Yu], Li, H.Y.[Hai-Yang], Soong, F.K.[Frank K.],
A Unified Framework for Symbol Segmentation and Recognition of Handwritten Mathematical Expressions,
ICDAR07(854-858).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Guo, Y., Huang, L., Liu, C., Jiang, X.,
An Automatic Mathematical Expression Understanding System,
ICDAR07(719-723).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Chang, T.Y.[Tzu-Yuan], Takiguchi, Y.[Yusuke], Okada, M.[Minoru],
Physical Structure Segmentation with Projection Profile for Mathematic Formulae and Graphics in Academic Paper Images,
ICDAR07(1193-1197).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Smirnova, E., Watt, S.,
Aspects of Mathematical Expression Analysis in Arabic Handwriting,
ICDAR07(1183-1187).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Takiguchi, Y.[Yusuke], Okada, M.[Minoru], Miyake, Y.[Yasuji],
A Study on Character Recognition Error Correction at Higher Level Recognition Step for Mathematical Formulae Understanding,
ICPR06(II: 966-969).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Ashida, K., Okamoto, M., Imai, H., Nakatsuka, T.,
Performance Evaluation of a Mathematical Formula Recognition System with a large scale of printed formula images,
DIAL06(320-331).
IEEE DOI 0604
BibRef

Okamoto, M., Miyazaki, A.,
An Experimental Implementation of a Document Recognition System for Papers Containing Mathematical Expressions,
SDIA92(xx-yy). BibRef 9200

Okamoto, M., Imai, H., Takagi, K.,
Performance evaluation of a robust method for mathematical expression recognition,
ICDAR01(121-128).
IEEE DOI 0109
BibRef

Kanahori, T., Suzuki, M.,
Refinement of digitized documents through recognition of mathematical formulae,
DIAL06(297-302).
IEEE DOI 0604
BibRef

Kanahori, T., Suzuki, M.,
Detection of matrices and segmentation of matrix elements in scanned images of scientific documents,
ICDAR03(433-437).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Toyota, S.[Seiichi], Uchida, S.[Seiichi], Suzuki, M.[Masakazu],
Structural Analysis of Mathematical Formulae with Verification Based on Formula Description Grammar,
DAS06(153-163).
Springer DOI 0602
BibRef

Takiguchi, Y., Okada, M., Miyake, Y.,
A fundamental study of output translation from layout recognition and semantic understanding system for mathematical formulae,
ICDAR05(II: 745-749).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Drake, D.M., Baird, H.S.,
Distinguishing mathematics notation from English text using computational geometry,
ICDAR05(II: 1270-1274).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Sexton, A.P., Sorge, V.,
Semantic analysis of matrix structures,
ICDAR05(II: 1141-1145).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Watt, S.M., Xie, X.F.[Xiao-Fang],
Recognition for large sets of handwritten mathematical symbols,
ICDAR05(II: 740-744).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Garain, U.[Utpal], Chaudhuri, B.B.,
Segmentation of touching symbols for OCR of printed mathematical expressions: an approach based on multifactorial analysis,
ICDAR05(I: 177-181).
IEEE DOI 0508
See also Segmentation of touching characters in printed Devnagari and Bangla scripts using fuzzy multifactorial analysis. BibRef

Hse, H., Newton, A.R.,
Sketched symbol recognition using zernike moments,
ICPR04(I: 367-370).
IEEE DOI 0409
BibRef

Toyozumi, K., Yamada, N., Kitasaka, T., Mori, K., Suenaga, Y., Mase, K., Takahashi, T.,
A study of symbol segmentation method for handwritten mathematical formula recognition using mathematical structure information,
ICPR04(II: 630-633).
IEEE DOI 0409
BibRef

Pearce, S., Ahmed, M.,
An evolutionary algorithm for general symbol segmentation,
ICDAR03(726-730).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Delalandre, M., Nicolas, S., Trupin, E., Ogier, J.M.,
Symbols recognition by global-local structural approaches, based on the scenarios use,and with a XML representation of data,
ICDAR03(1002-1006).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Jin, J.M.[Jian-Ming], Han, X.[Xionghu], Wang, Q.R.[Qing-Ren],
Mathematical formulas extraction,
ICDAR03(1138-1141).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Stoffel, A.[Andreas], Tapia, E.[Ernesto], Rojas, R.[Raúl],
Recognition of On-Line Handwritten Commutative Diagrams,
ICDAR09(1211-1215).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Tapia, E.[Ernesto], Rojas, R.[Raúl],
Recognition of on-line handwritten mathematical expressions in the E-Chalk system: An extension,
ICDAR05(II: 1206-1210).
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef
Earlier:
Recognition of on-line handwritten mathematical formulas in the E-chalk system,
ICDAR03(980-984).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Eto, Y., Suzuki, M.,
Mathematical formula recognition using virtual link network,
ICDAR01(762-767).
IEEE DOI 0109
BibRef

Kosmala, A., Rigoll, G., Brakensiek, A.,
On-line Handwritten Formula Recognition with Integrated Correction Recognition and Execution,
ICPR00(Vol II: 590-593).
IEEE DOI 0009
BibRef

Kosmala, A.[Andreas], Rigoll, G.[Gerhard],
On-Line Handwritten Formula Recognition Using Statistical Methods,
ICPR98(Vol II: 1306-1308).
IEEE DOI 9808
BibRef

Suzuki, T., Aoshima, S., Mori, K., Suenaga, Y.,
A New System for the Real-time Recognition of Handwritten Mathematical Formulas,
ICPR00(Vol IV: 515-518).
IEEE DOI 0009
BibRef

Toyozumi, K., Suzuki, T., Mori, K., Suenaga, Y.,
A system for real-time recognition of handwritten mathematical formulas,
ICDAR01(1059-1063).
IEEE DOI 0109
BibRef

Miller, E.G.[Erik G.], and Viola, P.A.[Paul A.],
Ambiguity and Constraint in Mathematical Expression Recognition,
AAAI-98(xx).
PS File. And
PDF File. BibRef 9800

Zhao, X.J.[Xue-Jin], Liu, X.Y.[Xin-Yu], Zheng, S.L.[Sheng-Ling], Pan, B.C.[Bao-Chang], Tang, Y.Y.,
On-Line Recognition of Handwritten Mathematical Symbols,
ICDAR97(645-648).
IEEE DOI 9708
BibRef

Lavirotte, S., Pottier, L.,
Optical Formula Recognition,
ICDAR97(357-361).
IEEE DOI 9708
BibRef

Wang, Z.X., Faure, C.,
Structural Analysis of Handwritten Mathematical Expressions,
ICPR88(I: 32-34).
IEEE DOI BibRef 8800

Chapter on OCR, Document Analysis and Character Recognition Systems continues in
Analysis of Graphics, Symbols, Trademarks, Logos, Icons .


Last update:Sep 18, 2017 at 11:34:11