13.5 General Spatial Reasoning and Geometric Reasoning Issues

Chapter Contents (Back)
Spatial Reasoning. Spatial Relations. Geometric Reasoning. Some of this is in the invariants chapter. See also Invariants -- Eigen Representations, General Appearance Based Methods. See also Digital Geometry.

Lane, E.,
Projective Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces,
University of ChicagoPress, 1932. BibRef 3200

Freeman, J.[John],
The Modelling of Spatial Relations,
CGIP(4), No. 2, June 1975, pp. 156-171.
WWW Link. Basic introduction to the use of spatial relations in descriptions. BibRef 7506

Sadananda, R., Mahabala, H.N.,
Conceptference: A System That Develops Concepts and Infers on Pictorial Data,
SMC(8), 1978, pp. 232-236. BibRef 7800

Sinha, R.M.K., Mahabala, H.N.,
Towards Design of a Natural Picture Description Language,
PRIP78(416-420). BibRef 7800

Haralick, R.M., Wang, S., Elliott, D.B., Campbell, J.B., and Ehrich, R.W.,
Spatial Reasoning in Remotely Sensed Data,
GeoRS(21), No. 1, January, 1983, pp. 94-101. BibRef 8301

Peuquet, D.J.[Donna J.], Zhan, C.X.[Ci-Xiang],
An Algorithm to Determine the Directional Relationship between Arbitrarily-Shaped Polygons in the Plane,
PR(20), No. 1, 1987, pp. 65-74.
WWW Link. BibRef 8700

Fleming, A.[Alan],
Geometric Relationships Between Toleranced Features,
AI(37), No. 1-3, December, 1988, pp. 403-412.
WWW Link. BibRef 8812

Arnon, D.S.[Dennis S.],
Geometric reasoning with logic and algebra,
AI(37), No. 1-3, December, 1988, pp. 37-60.
WWW Link. BibRef 8812

Mitchell, J.S.B.[Joseph S. B.],
An algorithmic approach to some problems in terrain navigation,
AI(37), No. 1-3, December, 1988, pp. 171-201.
WWW Link. BibRef 8812

Srihari, S.N., Xiang, Z.,
Spatial Knowledge Representation,
PRAI(3), 1989, pp. 67-84. BibRef 8900

Mulgaonkar, P.G.[Prasanna G.], Shapiro, L.G., and Haralick, R.M.,
Spatial Reasoning Using Modular Inference Engines,
ASR-I90(8). BibRef 9000

Magee, M., Wolfe, W.J., Mathis, D., and Weber, C.,
Model-Based Spatial Reasoning for Hierarchically Organized Structured Objects,
ASR-I90(Ch. 5). BibRef 9000

Magee, M., Nathan, M.,
A Viewpoint Independent Modeling Approach to Object Recognition,
RA(3), 1987, pp. 351-356. BibRef 8700

Magee, M.[Michael], and Nathan, M.[Mitchell],
A Rule Based System for Pattern Recognition that Exploits Topological Constraints,
CVPR86(62-67). BibRef 8600

Koczy, L.T.,
On the Description of Relative Position of Fuzzy Objects,
PRL(8), 1988, pp. 21-28. Uses the inverse of a relation. BibRef 8800

Dutta, S.,
Approximate Spatial Reasoning: Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Constraints,
ApproximateR(5), 1991, pp. 307-331. Qualitative spatial relationships. BibRef 9100

Miyajima, K., Ralescu, A.,
Spatial Organization in 2D Segmented Images: Representation and Recognition of Primitive Spatial Relations,
FuzzySets(65), 1994, pp. 225-236. Histogram of angles. BibRef 9400

Cohn, A.G., Gooday, J.M., Bennett, B., Gotts, N.M.,
A Logical Approach to Representing and Reasoning about Space,
AIR(9), No. 4-5, October 1995, pp. 255-259. BibRef 9510

Cohn, A.G.[Anthony G.], Bennett, B.[Brandon], Gooday, J.M.[John M.], Gotts, N.M.[Nicholas Mark],
Qualitative Spatial Representation and Reasoning with the Region Connection Calculus,
GeoInfo(1), No. 3, October 1997, pp. 275-316.
DOI Link BibRef 9710

Cohn, A.G.,
The Challenge of Qualitative Spatial Reasoning,
Surveys(27), No. 3, September 1995, pp. 323-325. Survey, Spatial Reasoning. BibRef 9509

Retz-Schmidt, G.,
Various Views on Spatial Prepositions,
AIMag(9), No. 2, Summer 1988, pp. 95-105. BibRef 8800

Retz-Schmidt, G.,
Deictic and Intrinsic Use of Spatial Prepositions: A Multidisciplinary Comparison,
SRMSF87(371-380). BibRef 8700

Tambouratzis, T.,
Using Geometrical Information for Accurate Scene Understanding in an Artificial Vision System,
IJIS(11), No. 10, October 1996, pp. 833-863. 9610

Holt, R.J., Huang, T.S., Netravali, A.N.,
Algebraic Methods for Image Processing and Computer Vision,
IP(5), No. 6, June 1996, pp. 976-986.

Coenen, F.P., Beattie, B., Shave, M.J.R., Bench-Capon, T.J.M., Diaz, B.M.,
Spatial Reasoning Using the Quad Tesseral Representation,
AIR(12), No. 4, August 1998, pp. 321-343.
WWW Link. 9808

Coenen, F.[Frans],
Tesseral spatio-temporal reasoning for multi-dimensional data,
PR(33), No. 1, January 2000, pp. 9-23.
WWW Link. 0005

Papadias, D.[Dimitris], Egenhofer, M.J.[Max J.],
Algorithms for Hierarchical Spatial Reasoning,
GeoInfo(1), No. 3, October 1997, pp. 251-273.
DOI Link BibRef 9710

Cohn, A.G.[Anthony G.], Hogg, D.C., Bennett, B.[Brandon], Devin, V., Galata, A., Magee, D.R., Needham, C., Santos, P.,
Cognitive Vision: Integrating Symbolic Qualitative Representations with Computer Vision,
Springer DOI 0310

Schweikard, A.[Achim], Schwarzer, F.[Fabian],
Detecting geometric infeasibility,
AI(105), No. 1-2, October 1998, pp. 139-159.
WWW Link. Geometric reasoning. BibRef 9810

Shekhar, S.[Shashi], Liu, X.[Xuan], Chawla, S.[Sanjay],
An Object Model of Direction and Its Implications,
GeoInfo(3), No. 4, December 1999, pp. 357-379.
DOI Link 0509

Bloch, I.[Isabelle],
Fuzzy Relative Position Between Objects in Image Processing: A Morphological Approach,
PAMI(21), No. 7, July 1999, pp. 657-664.
IEEE DOI BibRef 9907
Fuzzy classification for multi-modality image fusion,
ICIP94(I: 628-632).
Relative positions using fuzzy sets for structural descriptions. See also Fuzzy Connectivity and Mathematical Morphology. BibRef

Bloch, I.[Isabelle],
Topological Relations Between Bipolar Fuzzy Sets Based on Mathematical Morphology,
Springer DOI 1706
See also Mathematical morphology on hypergraphs, application to similarity and positive kernel. BibRef
Bipolar Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology for Spatial Reasoning,
Springer DOI 0908
See also Fuzzy Connectivity and Mathematical Morphology. BibRef

Bloch, I.[Isabelle],
Unifying Quantitative, Semi-quantitative and Qualitative Spatial Relation Knowledge Representations Using Mathematical Morphology,
WTRCV02(153-164). 0204

Bloch, I.[Isabelle], Maître, H.[Henri],
Extending adjacency to fuzzy sets for coping with imprecise image objects,
CIAP97(I: 30-37).
Springer DOI 9709

Bloch, I.[Isabelle], Ralescu, A.[Anca],
Directional Relative Position Between Objects in Image Processing: A Comparison Between Fuzzy Approaches,
PR(36), No. 7, July 2003, pp. 1563-1582.
WWW Link. 0304

Bloch, I.,
Fuzzy relative position between objects in images: A morphological approach,
ICIP96(II: 987-990).

Matsakis, P., Keller, J.M., Wendling, L., Marjamaa, J., Sjahputera, O.,
Linguistic description of relative positions in images,
SMC-B(31), No. 4, August 2001, pp. 573-588.
IEEE Top Reference. Fuzzy sets for linguistic descriptions. 0109

Matsakis, P.[Pascal], Wendling, L.[Laurent],
A New Way to Represent the Relative Position between Areal Objects,
PAMI(21), No. 7, July 1999, pp. 634-643.
IEEE DOI This paper describes a method for computing relative position relations (e.g. above, to left of, to the east of, etc.) between two-dimensional objects in images. These relations are commonally used in human descriptions of scenes, but there is no precise definition for such relations especially when areal (i.e. a 2-D region) features are involved. The aim of this paper is not to give a precise definition to a relation such as "to the left of," but to provide an efficient and understandable way to compute this property, no matter what exact definition is desired. The authors introduce the idea of a "histogram of forces" that gives a value for each angle of the "force" between the two objects. A high force would indicate support for that relationship. As an example of the results, the system produces a moderately strong value (55 and 65, depending on the force definition used) for the relation "Spain is south of France" and a weaker value (47 and 40) for "Spain is West of France," which corresponds to the general human interpretation of their relationship. See also Modelling of Spatial Relations, The. BibRef 9907

Skubic, M., Matsakis, P., Chronis, G., Keller, J.M.,
Generating Multi-Level Linguistic Spatial Descriptions form Range Sensor Readings Using the Histogram of Forces,
AutRob(14), No. 1, 2003, pp. 51-69. BibRef 0300

Skubic, M., Perzanowski, D., Blisard, S., Schultz, A., Adams, W., Bugajska, M., Brock, D.,
Spatial language for human-robot dialogs,
SMC-C(34), No. 2, May 2004, pp. 154-167.
IEEE Abstract. 0407

Matsakis, P.[Pascal], Keller, J.M.[James M.], Sjahputera, O.[Ozy], Marjamaa, J.[Jonathon],
The Use of Force Histograms for Affine-Invariant Relative Position Description,
PAMI(26), No. 1, January 2004, pp. 1-0_6.
IEEE Abstract. 0401
How affine transforms affect the descriptor. Any 2 of applied affine transform, relative position before, relative position after, allows other to be determined. BibRef

Matsakis, P.[Pascal],
Relations Spatiales Structurelles et Interpretation d'Images,
Ph.D.Thesis, Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse, France, 1998. BibRef 9800

Matsakis, P.[Pascal], Wendling, L.[Laurent], Desachy, J.,
Representation de la Position Relativ d'Objets 2D au Moyen d'un Histogramme de Froces,
Traitement du Signal(15), No. 1, 1998, pp. 25-38. BibRef 9800

Matsakis, P.[Pascal], Ni, J.[JingBo], Wang, X.[Xin],
Object Localization Based on Directional Information: Case of 2D Raster Data,
ICPR06(II: 142-146).
Directional spatial relations. BibRef

Keller, J.M.[James M.], Wang, X.M.[Xiao-Mei],
A Fuzzy Rule-Based Approach to Scene Description Involving Spatial Relationships,
CVIU(80), No. 1, October 2000, pp. 21-41.
DOI Link 0010

Keller, J.M., Gader, P.D., Wang, X.,
LADAR Scene Description Using Fuzzy Morphology and Rules,
IEEE DOI BibRef 9900

Krishnapuram, R., Keller, J.M., Ma, Y.,
Quantative Analysis of Properties and Spatial Relations of Fuzzy Image Regions,
Fuzzy(1), No. 3, 1993, pp. 222-233. Histogram of angles for relationships. BibRef 9300

Medasani, S., Krishnapuram, R., Keller, J.M.,
Are Fuzzy Definitions of Basic Attributes of Image Objects Really Useful?,
SMC-A(29), No. 4, July 1999, pp. 378.
IEEE Top Reference. BibRef 9907

Xiong, D.M.[De-Min], Lin, H.[Hui],
Spatial Data Handling for ITS: Perspective, Issues and Approaches,
GeoInfo(4), No. 2, June 2000, pp. 215-230.
DOI Link 0509

Jan, S.R., Hsueh, Y.C.,
Primitive spatial relations based on SKIZ,
IVC(18), No. 8, 15 May 2000, pp. 597-605.
WWW Link. 0003

Guru, D.S., Nagabhushan, P.,
Triangular Spatial Relationship: A New Approach for Spatial Knowledge Representation,
PRL(22), No. 9, July 2001, pp. 999-1006.
Elsevier DOI 0106

Lang, D.[Dieter], Winter, S.[Stephan], Frank, A.U.[Andrew U.],
Neighborhood Relations between Fields with Applications to Cellular Networks,
GeoInfo(5), No. 2, June 2001, pp. 127-144.
DOI Link 0108

Gerevini, A.[Alfonso], Renz, J.[Jochen],
Combining topological and size information for spatial reasoning,
AI(137), No. 1-2, May 2002, pp. 1-42.
WWW Link. 0205
Size of regions. BibRef

Chen, J.[Jun], Zhao, R.L.[Ren-Liang], Li, Z.L.[Zhi-Lin],
Voronoi-based k-order neighbour relations for spatial analysis,
PandRS(59), No. 1-2, August 2004, pp. 60-72.
WWW Link. 0411
Spatial relationships. BibRef

Bloch, I.[Isabelle],
Fuzzy Spatial Relationships for Image Processing and Interpretation: A Review,
IVC(23), No. 2, 1 February 2004, pp. 89-110.
WWW Link. 0412

Lazebnik, S.[Svetlana], Ponce, J.[Jean],
The Local Projective Shape of Smooth Surfaces and Their Outlines,
IJCV(63), No. 1, June 2005, pp. 65-83.
Springer DOI 0501
Earlier: ICCV03(83-89).
Projective invariant features of curves and surfaces. BibRef

Dehak, S.M.R.[Sidi Mohammed Reda], Bloch, I.[Isabelle], Maitre, H.[Henri],
Spatial Reasoning with Incomplete Information on Relative Positioning,
PAMI(27), No. 9, September 2005, pp. 1473-1484.
Inferring relative position of 2 points knowing their relative position to a third point. E.g. map locations. BibRef

Yoo, J.S.[Jin Soung], Shekhar, S.[Shashi],
In-Route Nearest Neighbor Queries,
GeoInfo(9), No. 2, June 2005, pp. 117-137.
Springer DOI 0509

Shirabe, T.[Takeshi],
Classification of Spatial Properties for Spatial Allocation Modeling,
GeoInfo(9), No. 3, September 2005, pp. 269-287.
Springer DOI 0509

Bloch, I., Colliot, O., Cesar, Jr., R.M.,
On the Ternary Spatial Relation 'Between',
SMC-B(36), No. 2, April 2006, pp. 312-327.

Yan, H.[Haowen], Chu, Y.D.[Yan-Dong], Li, Z.L.[Zhi-Lin], Guo, R.Z.[Ren-Zhong],
A Quantitative Description Model for Direction Relations Based on Direction Groups,
GeoInfo(9), No. 2, June 2006, pp. 177-196.
Springer DOI 0605

Skiadopoulos, S.[Spiros], Koubarakis, M.[Manolis],
On the consistency of cardinal direction constraints,
AI(163), No. 1, March 2005, pp. 91-135.
Elsevier DOI 0605

Laub, J.[Julian], Roth, V.[Volker], Buhmann, J.M.[Joachim M.], Müller, K.R.[Klaus-Robert],
On the information and representation of non-Euclidean pairwise data,
PR(39), No. 10, October 2006, pp. 1815-1826.
WWW Link. 0606
Non-Euclidean pairwise data; Embedding; Visualization; Multidimensional scaling As opposed to vector representations. BibRef

Pham, T.V.[Thang V.], Smeulders, A.W.M.[Arnold W.M.],
Learning spatial relations in object recognition,
PRL(27), No. 14, 15 October 2006, pp. 1673-1684.
WWW Link. 0609
Articulated object; Bayesian network; Deformable model; Part-based approach; Shape; Spatial relation Deformable relations and pairwise pixel relations. BibRef

Liu, Y.[Yu], Guo, Q.H.[Qing-Hua], Kelly, M.[Maggi],
A framework of region-based spatial relations for non-overlapping features and its application in object based image analysis,
PandRS(63), No. 4, July 2008, pp. 461-475.
WWW Link. 0804
Region-based spatial relations; Single-valued space; Object based image analysis BibRef

Du, S.H.[Shi-Hong], Guo, L.[Luo], Wang, Q.[Qiao], Qin, Q.M.[Qi-Min],
Efficiently computing and deriving topological relation matrices between complex regions with broad boundaries,
PandRS(63), No. 6, November 2008, pp. 593-609.
WWW Link. 0811
Geographical information system; Complex regions with broad boundaries; Topological relations; Reasoning about topological relations BibRef

Schockaert, S.[Steven], de Cock, M.[Martine], Kerre, E.E.[Etienne E.],
Spatial reasoning in a fuzzy region connection calculus,
AI(173), No. 2, February 2009, pp. 258-298.
Elsevier DOI 0804
Spatial reasoning; Region connection calculus; Fuzzy set theory BibRef

Deruyver, A.[Aline], Hodé, Y.[Yann],
Qualitative spatial relationships for image interpretation by using a conceptual graph,
IVC(27), No. 7, 4 June 2009, pp. 876-886.
Elsevier DOI 0904
Earlier: A2, A1:
Qualitative Spatial Relationships for Image Interpretation by Using Semantic Graph,
Springer DOI 0706
Image interpretation; Spatial relationships; Conceptual graph; Arc-consistency analysis BibRef

Deruyver, A.[Aline], Hodé, Y.[Yann],
Arc-Consistency Checking with Bilevel Constraints: An Optimization,
Springer DOI 0905

Deruyver, A., Hode, Y.,
Semantic graph and arc consistency in 'true' three dimensional image labelling,
ICIP95(II: 619-622).

Deruyver, A.[Aline], Hode, Y.[Yann], Brun, L.[Luc],
Image interpretation with a conceptual graph: Labeling over-segmented images and detection of unexpected objects,
AI(173), No. 14, September 2009, pp. 1245-1265.
Elsevier DOI 0910
Image interpretation; Conceptual graph; Arc-consistency analysis BibRef

Bejaoui, L.[Lotfi], Pinet, F.[François], Schneider, M.[Michel], Bédard, Y.[Yvan],
OCL for formal modelling of topological constraints involving regions with broad boundaries,
GeoInfo(14), No. 3, July 2010, pp. xx-yy.
Springer DOI 1003

Takemura, C.M.[Celina Maki], Cesar, Jr., R.M.[Roberto M.], Bloch, I.[Isabelle],
Modeling and measuring the spatial relation 'along': Regions, contours and fuzzy sets,
PR(45), No. 2, February 2012, pp. 757-766.
Elsevier DOI 1110
Spatial relations; Spatial reasoning; Structural pattern recognition BibRef

Liu, W.M.[Wei-Ming], Li, S.J.[San-Jiang],
Reasoning about cardinal directions between extended objects: The NP-hardness result,
AI(175), No. 18, December 2011, pp. 2155-2169.
Elsevier DOI 1112
Qualitative spatial reasoning; Cardinal direction calculus; NP-hardness; Consistency checking; Reduction BibRef

Uijlings, J.R.R., Smeulders, A.W.M., Scha, R.J.H.,
The Visual Extent of an Object: Suppose We Know the Object Locations,
IJCV(96), No. 1, January 2012, pp. 46-63.
WWW Link. 1201
What is the spatial extent of an object?,
Depends on the recognition method. Region, whole image. Rigid object primarly recognized by shape, non-rigid by texture. With unknown location, the surrounding context is less significant. BibRef

Corcoran, P.[Padraig], Mooney, P.[Peter], Bertolotto, M.[Michela],
Spatial Relations Using High Level Concepts,
IJGI(1), No. 3, 2012, pp. 333-350.
DOI Link 1211

Koenderink, J.J.[Jan J.], van Doorn, A.J.[Andrea J.],
Gauge Fields in Pictorial Space,
SIIMS(5), No. 4, 2012, pp. 1213-1233.
DOI Link 1211
Pictorial place - structure to look into a picture. BibRef

Clementini, E.[Eliseo],
Directional relations and frames of reference,
GeoInfo(17), No. 2, April 2013, pp. 235-255.
Springer DOI 1304

Kontchakov, R.[Roman], Pratt-Hartmann, I.[Ian], Zakharyaschev, M.[Michael],
Spatial reasoning with and connectedness constraints in Euclidean spaces,
Artificial Intelligence(217), No. 1, 2014, pp. 43-75.
Elsevier DOI 1411
Qualitative spatial reasoning BibRef

Gondra, I.[Iker], Alam, F.I.[Fahim Irfan],
Learning spatial relations for object-specific segmentation using Bayesian network model,
SIViP(8), No. 8, November 2014, pp. 1441-1450.
WWW Link. 1411

Zheng, B.[Bo], Zhao, Y.B.[Yi-Biao], Yu, J.C.[Joey C.], Ikeuchi, K.[Katsushi], Zhu, S.C.[Song-Chun],
Scene Understanding by Reasoning Stability and Safety,
IJCV(112), No. 2, April 2015, pp. 221-238.
Springer DOI 1504
Beyond Point Clouds: Scene Understanding by Reasoning Geometry and Physics,

Jia, Z.Y.[Zhao-Yin], Gallagher, A.C.[Andrew C.], Saxena, A.[Ashutosh], Chen, T.H.[Tsu-Han],
3D Reasoning from Blocks to Stability,
PAMI(37), No. 5, May 2015, pp. 905-918.
3D-Based Reasoning with Blocks, Support, and Stability,
Cognition BibRef

Jia, Z.Y.[Zhao-Yin], Gallagher, A.C.[Andrew C.], Chen, T.H.[Tsu-Han],
Learning boundaries with color and depth,
Image edge detection;Image segmentation;Markov random fields BibRef

Kuang, Z.H.[Zhang-Hui], Wong, K.Y.K.[Kwan-Yee K.],
Relatively-Paired Space Analysis: Learning a Latent Common Space From Relatively-Paired Observations,
IJCV(113), No. 3, July 2015, pp. 176-192.
Springer DOI 1506
Multi-modal combination for recognition. BibRef

Barouni, F., Moulin, B.,
An Intelligent Spatial Proximity System Using Neurofuzzy Classifiers and Contextual Information,
DOI Link 1411

Fouhey, D.F.[David F.], Zitnick, C.L.[C. Lawrence],
Predicting Object Dynamics in Scenes,
From static scene. commonsense knowledge; prediction; scene dynamics; scene understanding BibRef

Afkham, H.M.[Heydar Maboudi], Ek, C.H.[Carl Henrik], Carlsson, S.[Stefan],
A Topological Framework for Training Latent Variable Models,
Adaptation models BibRef

Zhang, C.[Cheng], Ek, C.H., Gratal, X., Pokorny, F.T., Kjellstrom, H.,
Supervised Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes with Variational Inference,
inference mechanisms BibRef

Carlier, A.[Axel], Marques, O.[Oge], Charvillat, V.[Vincent],
Ask'nSeek: A New Game for Object Detection and Labeling,
WebScale12(I: 249-258).
Springer DOI 1210

Zhu, X., Chen, D., Zhou, C., Li, M., Xiao, W.,
Cardinal Direction Relations Query Modeling Based on Geo-Ontology,
DOI Link 1209

Chang, C.L.[Chin-Lung], Chang, Y.H.[Yi-Hong], Chuang, T.R.[Tyng-Ruey], Deng, D.P.[Dong-Po], Huang, A.W.C.[Andrea Wei-Ching],
Narrative Geospatial Knowledge in Ethnographies: Representation and Reasoning,
Springer DOI 0912
Analyze narrative descriptions to get more accurate geospatial information. BibRef

Frank, A.U.[Andrew U.],
Multi-cultural Aspects of Spatial Knowledge,
Springer DOI 0912
Cultural differences for GIS system implementations. BibRef

Cheong, H.Y.[Hye-Yeon], Ortega, A.[Antonio],
Quantization based nearest-neighbor-preserving metric approximation,

O'Regan, D.[Deirdre], Kokaram, A.[Anil],
Implicit spatial inference with sparse local features,

Mallenby, D.[David], Bennett, B.[Brandon],
Applying Spatial Reasoning to Topographical Data with a Grounded Geographical Ontology,
Springer DOI 0711

Gill, D.[Daniel], Ninio, Y.[Yaniv],
Learning Shape Metric: From Alignment to Recognition,
Faces08(xx-yy). 0810

Gill, D.[Daniel], Ritov, Y.[Ya'acov], Dror, G.[Gideon],
Is Pinocchio's Nose Long or His Head Small? Learning Shape Distances for Classification,
ISVC07(I: 652-661).
Springer DOI 0711

Cinbis, R.G.[R. Gokberk], Aksoy, S.[Selim],
Relative Position-Based Spatial Relationships using Mathematical Morphology,
ICIP07(II: 97-100).

Kong, H.J.[Hyun-Jang], Cho, M.Y.[Mi-Young], Jung, K.H.[Kwan-Ho], Baek, S.K.[Sun-Kyoung], Kim, P.K.[Pan-Koo],
Semantic Image Analysis Based on the Representation of the Spatial Relations Between Objects in Images,
ICIAR04(I: 471-478).
Springer DOI 0409

Gapp, K.P.,
Basic Meanings of Spatial Relations: Computation and Evaluation in 3D Space,
AAAI-94(1393-1398). General description of use of relations. BibRef 9400

Beringer, A., Holldobler, S., Kurfess, F.,
Spatial Reasoning And Connectionist Inference,
IJCAI93(XX-YY). BibRef 9300

Lanser, S., Zierl, C.,
On the Use of Topological Constraints Within Object Recognition Tasks,
ICPR96(I: 580-584).
(Technical Univ. of Munich, D) BibRef

Chen, S.Y., Lin, W.C., Chen, C.T.,
Spatial reasoning based on multivariate belief functions,
Blackboard architecture for MRI recognition. BibRef

Arbab, B.,
Mask: An Object Identification Algorithm,
SRMSF87(107-117). BibRef 8700

Backstrom, C.,
Static and Dynamic Logical Modelling of Mechanical Assembly Processes in a Simplified Geometrical Environment,
SRMSF87(52-61). BibRef 8700

Antony, D.,
Spatial Reasoning Using an Object-Oriented Spatial DBMS,
SRMSF87(42-51). BibRef 8700

Rodger, J.C., Browse, R.A.,
An Object-Based Representation for Multisensory Robotic Perception,
SRMSF87(13-20). BibRef 8700

Browse, R.A., Rodrigues, M.G.,
Propagation of Interpretations Based on Graded Resolution Input,
ICCV87(405-410). BibRef 8700

Nirenburg, S., Raskin, V.,
Dealing with Space in Natural Language Processing,
SRMSF87(361-370). BibRef 8700

Weymouth, T.E.,
Incremental Inference: Spatial Reasoning within a Blackboard Architecture,
SRMSF87(34-41). BibRef 8700

Nishida, T., Yamada, A., Doshita, S.,
Figuring out Most Plausible Interpretation from Spatial Constraints,
SRMSF87(158-167). BibRef 8700

Tou, J.T.,
Automatic recognition of 3-D objects via geographic encoding,
ICPR88(II: 866-868).

Tou, J.T., Huang, C.L.,
Recognition of 3-D Objects Via Spatial Understanding of 2-D Images,
CAIA85(641-646). BibRef 8500

Davis, E.,
The MERCATOR Representation of Spatial Knowledge,
IJCAI83(295-301). BibRef 8300

Malik, J., Binford, T.O.,
Reasoning in Time and Space,
IJCAI83(343-345). BibRef 8300

Corner, D.F., Ambler, A.P., Popplestone, R.J.,
Reasoning about the Spatial Relationships Derived from a RAPT Program for Describing Assembly by Robot,
IJCAI83(842-844). BibRef 8300

Hwang, V.S.S., Matsuyama, T., Davis, L.S., Rosenfeld, A.,
Evidence Accumulation for Spatial Reasoning in Aerial Image Understanding,
ICPR84(394-397). BibRef 8400

Chapter on Matching and Recognition Using Volumes, High Level Vision Techniques, Invariants continues in
Knowledge-Based Vision .

Last update:Sep 18, 2017 at 11:34:11