21.4.2.8 American Sign Language, ASL Recognition

Chapter Contents (Back)
Gesture. ASL. Sign Language. For other languages: See also Sign Language, Other Languages, Chinese, Arabic. See also Sign Language, Fingerspelling.

Technabling,
2012
HTML Version. Vendor, Sign Language. Portable Sign Language Translator.

Liddell, S.K., and Johnson, R.E.,
American Sign Language: The Phonological Base,
Sign Language Studies(64), 1989, pp. 195-277. BibRef 8900

Kawai, H.[Hideo], Tamura, S.[Shinichi],
Deaf-and-mute sign language generation system,
PR(18), No. 3-4, 1985, pp. 199-205.
WWW Link. 0309
Recognize speech and then generate ASL-like animations in real-time. BibRef

Loomis, J., Poizner, H., Bellugi, U., Blakemore, A., Hollerbach, J.,
Computer Graphic Modeling of American Sign Language,
Computer Graphics(17), No. 3, 1983, pp. 105-114. BibRef 8300

Letellier, P., Nadler, M., Abramatic, J.F.,
The Telesign Project,
PIEEE(73), 1985, pp. 813-827. BibRef 8500
Earlier: A2, A33, A1:
A Narrow-Band Video Communication System for the Transmission of Sign Language over Ordinary Telephone Lines,
ISPDSA83(314-346). BibRef

Sperling, G.[George], Landy, M.[Michael], Cohen, Y.[Yoav], Pavel, M.,
Intelligible Encoding of ASL Image Sequences at Extremely Low Information Rates,
CVGIP(31), No. 3, September 1985, pp. 335-391.
WWW Link. BibRef 8509
And: Correction: CVGIP(35), No. 2, August 1986, pp. 274. Application, Sign Language. NYU, The various methods get to 80% intelligibility at 9600Baud. BibRef

Dorner, B., Hagen, E.,
Towards An American Sign Language Interface,
AIR(8), No. 2-3, 1994, pp. 235-253. BibRef 9400

Tamura, S.[Shinichi], Kawasaki, S.[Shingo],
Recognition of Sign Language Motion Images,
PR(21), No. 4, 1988, pp. 343-353.
WWW Link. BibRef 8800

Huang, C.L.[Chung-Lin], Huang, W.Y.[Wen-Yi],
Sign Language Recognition Using Model-Based Tracking and a 3D Hopfield Neural-Network,
MVA(10), No. 5-6, April 1998, pp. 292-307.
Springer DOI 9805
BibRef

Huang, C.L.[Chung-Lin], Huang, W.Y.[Wen-Yi], Lien, C.C.[Cheng-Chang],
Sign language recognition using 3-D Hopfield neural network,
ICIP95(II: 611-614).
IEEE DOI 9510
BibRef

Starner, T.E., Weaver, J., Pentland, A.P.,
Real-Time American Sign Language Recognition Using Desk and Wearable Computer Based Video,
PAMI(20), No. 12, December 1998, pp. 1371-1375.
IEEE DOI BibRef 9812
And: Vismod--466, July 1998.
HTML Version. BibRef
Earlier:
A Wearable Computing Based American Sign Language Recognizer,
Vismod--425, 1997.
PS File. BibRef

Starner, T.E.[Thad E.], and Pentland, A.P.[Alex P.],
Real-Time American Sign Language from Video Using Hidden Markov Models,
MBR97(Chapter 10), MIT. BibRef 9700
Earlier:
Visual Recognition of American Sign Language Using Hidden Markov Models,
AFGR95(XX-YY). Zurich. BibRef
Earlier:
Real-Time American Sign Language Recognition from Video Using Hidden Markov Models,
SCV95(265-270).
IEEE DOI M.I.T. BibRef

Cui, Y.T.[Yun-Tao], Weng, J.J.[John J.],
A Learning-Based Prediction-and-Verification Segmentation Scheme for Hand Sign Image Sequence,
PAMI(21), No. 8, August 1999, pp. 798-804.
IEEE DOI BibRef 9908
Earlier: MSUCPS-95-43, December 1995. BibRef
And:
Hand Segmentation Using Learning-Based Prediction and Verification for Hand-Sign Recognition,
CVPR96(88-93).
IEEE DOI BibRef
And:
View-Based Hand Segmentation and Hand-Sequence Recognition with Complex Backgrounds,
ICPR96(III: 617-621).
IEEE DOI 9608
(Michigan State Univ., USA) BibRef

Cui, Y.T.[Yun-Tao], Weng, J. .J.Y.[J. Ju-Yang],
Appearance-Based Hand Sign Recognition from Intensity Image Sequences,
CVIU(78), No. 2, May 2000, pp. 157-176.
DOI Link 0005
BibRef
Earlier:
Hand sign recognition from intensity image sequences with complex backgrounds,
AFGR96(259-264).
IEEE DOI 9610
BibRef

Cui, Y.T.[Yun-Tao], Swets, D.L.[Daniel L.], Weng, J.J.[John J.],
Learning-Based Hand Sign Recognition Using SHOSLIF-M,
ICCV95(631-636).
IEEE DOI Sign language recognition. BibRef 9500

Liebermann, R.[Raanan],
Telephone for the deaf and method of using same,
US_Patent5,982,853, Nov 9, 1999
WWW Link. Sign language. BibRef 9911

Vogler, C.[Christian], Metaxas, D.N.[Dimitris N.],
A Framework for Recognizing the Simultaneous Aspects of American Sign Language,
CVIU(81), No. 3, March 2001, pp. 358-384.
DOI Link 0001
BibRef
Earlier:
Parallel Hidden Markov Models for American Sign Language Recognition,
ICCV99(116-122).
IEEE DOI BibRef
Earlier:
ASL Recognition Based on a Coupling Between HMMs and 3D Motion Analysis,
ICCV98(363-369).
IEEE DOI BibRef

Vogler, C.[Christian], Sun, H.[Harold], Metaxas, D.N.[Dimitris N.],
A Framework for Motion Recognition with Applications to American Sign Language and Gait Recognition,
HUMO00(33-38).
IEEE Top Reference. 0010
BibRef

Wang, Q.[Qi], Chen, X.L.[Xi-Lin], Zhang, L.G.[Liang-Guo], Wang, C.L.[Chun-Li], Gao, W.[Wen],
Viewpoint Invariant Sign Language Recognition,
CVIU(108), No. 1-2, October-November 2007, pp. 87-97.
WWW Link. 0710
BibRef
Earlier: ICIP05(III: 281-284).
IEEE DOI 0512
Sign language recognition; Viewpoint invariant recognition; Epipolar geometry; Fundamental matrix; Dempster-Shafer theory BibRef

Wang, Q.[Qi], Chen, X.L.[Xi-Lin], Wang, C.L.[Chun-Li], Gao, W.[Wen],
A Verification Method for Viewpoint Invariant Sign Language Recognition,
ICPR06(I: 456-459).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Habili, N., Lim, C.C., Moini, A.,
Segmentation of the Face and Hands in Sign Language Video Sequences Using Color and Motion Cues,
CirSysVideo(14), No. 8, August 2004, pp. 1086-1097.
IEEE Abstract. 0409
BibRef

Ong, S.C.W.[Sylvie C.W.], Ranganath, S.[Surendra],
Automatic sign language analysis: A survey and the future beyond lexical meaning,
PAMI(27), No. 6, June 2005, pp. 873-891.
IEEE Abstract. 0506
Survey, Gesture. BibRef
Earlier:
Deciphering gestures with layered meanings and signer adaptation,
AFGR04(559-564).
WWW Link. 0411
BibRef
Earlier:
Classification of Gesture with Layered Meanings,
GW03(239-246).
Springer DOI 0405
Nonmanual signals and grammatical processes, which result in systematic variations in sign appearance, are integral to recognition. BibRef

Ong, S.C.W.[Sylvie C. W.], Ranganath, S.[Surendra],
A New Probabilistic Model for Recognizing Signs with Systematic Modulations,
AMFG07(16-30).
Springer DOI 0710
BibRef

Ong, S.C.W.[Sylvie C.W.], Ranganath, S.[Surendra], Venkatesh, Y.V.,
Understanding gestures with systematic variations in movement dynamics,
PR(39), No. 9, September 2006, pp. 1633-1648.
WWW Link. 0606
BibRef
Earlier:
Deciphering layered meaning in gestures,
ICPR02(III: 815-818).
IEEE DOI 0211
Bayesian networks; Classifier combination; Independent channels; Signer adaptation BibRef

Agrafiotis, D.[Dimitris], Canagarajah, N.[Nishan], Bull, D.R.[David R.], Kyle, J.[Jim], Seers, H.[Helen], Dye, M.[Matthew],
A perceptually optimised video coding system for sign language communication at low bit rates,
SP:IC(21), No. 7, August 2006, pp. 531-549.
WWW Link. 0608
BibRef
Earlier:
A video coding system for sign language communication at low bit rates,
ICIP04(I: 441-444).
IEEE DOI 0505
Sign language video coding; Eye tracking; Foveated video coding; Rate control; H.264 BibRef

Bosworth, R.G.[Rain G.], Bartlett, M.S.[Marian Stewart], Dobkins, K.R.[Karen R.],
Image Statistics of American Sign Language: Comparison with Faces and Natural Scenes,
JOSA-A(23), No. 9, September 2006, pp. 2085-2096.
WWW Link. 0610
BibRef

Infantino, I., Rizzo, R., Gaglio, S.,
A Framework for Sign Language Sentence Recognition by Commonsense Context,
SMC-C(37), No. 5, September 2007, pp. 1034-1039.
IEEE DOI 0710
BibRef

Burger, T.[Thomas], Caplier, A.[Alice], Perret, P.[Pascal],
Cued Speech Gesture Recognition: A First Prototype Based on Early Reduction,
JIVP(2007), 2007, pp. xx-yy.
DOI Link 0804
BibRef

Lichtenauer, J.F.[Jeroen F.], Hendriks, E.A.[Emile A.], Reinders, M.J.T.[Marcel J.T.],
Sign Language Recognition by Combining Statistical DTW and Independent Classification,
PAMI(30), No. 11, November 2008, pp. 2040-2046.
IEEE DOI 0809
DTW: Dynamic Time Warping. Use Statistical DTW ( See also Writer Independent Online Handwriting Recognition System Frog On Hand and Cluster Generative Statistical Dynamic Time Warping, The. ) for time warping only, other technique for classification. BibRef

Derpanis, K.G.P.[Konstantinos G.P.], Wildes, R.P.[Richard P.], Tsotsos, J.K.[John K.],
Definition and recovery of kinematic features for recognition of American sign language movements,
IVC(26), No. 12, 1 December 2008, pp. 1650-1662.
WWW Link. 0810
BibRef
Earlier:
Hand Gesture Recognition within a Linguistics-Based Framework,
ECCV04(Vol I: 282-296).
Springer DOI 0405
Gesture recognition; Motion estimation; Human computer interaction (HCI); Linguistics; American sign language (ASL) BibRef

Aran, O.[Oya], Burger, T.[Thomas], Caplier, A.[Alice], Akarun, L.[Lale],
A belief-based sequential fusion approach for fusing manual signs and non-manual signals,
PR(42), No. 5, May 2009, pp. 812-822.
Elsevier DOI 0902
BibRef
Earlier:
Sequential Belief-Based Fusion of Manual and Non-manual Information for Recognizing Isolated Signs,
GW07(134-144).
Springer DOI 0705
Sign language recognition; Manual signs and non-manual; Hidden Markov models; Data fusion; Belief functions BibRef

Westly, E.,
Sign Language by Cellphone,
Spectrum(46), No. 3, March 2009, pp. 16-16.
IEEE DOI 0903
Discussion of an application. BibRef

Han, J.W.[Jun-Wei], Awad, G.[George], Sutherland, A.[Alistair],
Modelling and segmenting subunits for sign language recognition based on hand motion analysis,
PRL(30), No. 6, 15 April 2009, pp. 623-633.
Elsevier DOI 0903
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1, A3:
A Unified System for Segmentation and Tracking of Face and Hands in Sign Language Recognition,
ICPR06(I: 239-242).
IEEE DOI 0609
Sign language recognition; Subunit; Phoneme; Hand motion; Dynamic time warping See also Hand tracking in bimanual movements. BibRef

Han, J.W.[Jun-Wei], Awad, G.[George], Sutherland, A.[Alistair],
Boosted subunits: a framework for recognising sign language from videos,
IET-IPR(7), No. 1, 2013, pp. 70-80.
DOI Link 1303
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1, A3:
Novel boosting framework for subunit-based sign language recognition,
ICIP09(2729-2732).
IEEE DOI 0911
BibRef

Han, J.W.[Jun-Wei], Awad, G.[George], Sutherland, A.[Alistair],
Automatic skin segmentation and tracking in sign language recognition,
IET-CV(3), No. 1, March 2009, pp. 24-35.
DOI Link 0905
BibRef

Nayak, S.[Sunita], Sarkar, S.[Sudeep], Loeding, B.[Barbara],
Distribution-Based Dimensionality Reduction Applied to Articulated Motion Recognition,
PAMI(31), No. 5, May 2009, pp. 795-810.
IEEE DOI 0903
BibRef
And:
Automated extraction of signs from continuous sign language sentences using Iterated Conditional Modes,
CVPR09(2583-2590).
IEEE DOI 0906
BibRef
Earlier:
Unsupervised Modeling of Signs Embedded in Continuous Sentences,
VHCI05(III: 81-81).
IEEE DOI 0507
Frame wise transistions. Analyze trajectories. BibRef

Yang, R.[Ruiduo], Sarkar, S.[Sudeep],
Coupled grouping and matching for sign and gesture recognition,
CVIU(113), No. 6, June 2009, pp. 663-681.
Elsevier DOI 0904
Grouping and segmentation; Gesture recognition; American Sign Language recognition; Hidden Markov Models BibRef

Yang, R.[Ruiduo], Sarkar, S.[Sudeep], Loeding, B.[Barbara],
Handling Movement Epenthesis and Hand Segmentation Ambiguities in Continuous Sign Language Recognition Using Nested Dynamic Programming,
PAMI(32), No. 3, March 2010, pp. 462-477.
IEEE DOI 1002
BibRef
Earlier:
Enhanced Level Building Algorithm for the Movement Epenthesis Problem in Sign Language Recognition,
CVPR07(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0706
Movement Ephenthesis: A movement segment is added between the last segment of one sign and the first segment of the next sign. Use grammar models. BibRef

Sarkar, S.[Sudeep], Loeding, B.[Barbara], Yang, R.[Ruiduo], Nayak, S.[Sunita], Parashar, A.[Ayush],
Segmentation-robust representations, matching, and modeling for sign language,
Gesture11(13-19).
IEEE DOI 1106
BibRef

Aran, O.[Oya], Ari, I.[Ismail], Akarun, L.[Lale], Sankur, B.[Bülent], Benoit, A.[Alexandre], Caplier, A.[Alice], Campr, P.[Pavel], Carrillo, A.H.[Ana Huerta], Fanarda, F.X.[François-Xavier],
SignTutor: An Interactive System for Sign Language Tutoring,
MultMedMag(16), No. 1, January-March 2009, pp. 81-93.
WWW Link. 0905
BibRef

Keskin, C.[Cem], Akarun, L.[Lale],
STARS: Sign tracking and recognition system using input-output HMMs,
PRL(30), No. 12, 1 September 2009, pp. 1086-1095.
Elsevier DOI 0909
IOHMM; HCRF; HCI; Hand gesture recognition; Gesture spotting; Adaptive threshold model BibRef

Ding, L.[Liya], Martinez, A.M.[Aleix M.],
Modelling and recognition of the linguistic components in American Sign Language,
IVC(27), No. 12, November 2009, pp. 1826-1844.
Elsevier DOI 0910
BibRef
Earlier:
Recovering the linguistic components of the manual signs in American Sign Language,
AVSBS07(447-452).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef
Earlier:
Three-Dimensional Shape and Motion Reconstruction for the Analysis of American Sign Language,
V4HCI06(146).
IEEE DOI 0609
American Sign Language; Handshape; Motion reconstruction; Multiple cue recognition; Computer vision BibRef

Zhao, R.[Ruiqi], Martínez, A.M.[Aleix M.],
Labeled Graph Kernel for Behavior Analysis,
PAMI(38), No. 8, August 2016, pp. 1640-1650.
IEEE DOI 1608
graph theory BibRef

Aran, O.[Oya], Akarun, L.[Lale],
A multi-class classification strategy for Fisher scores: Application to signer independent sign language recognition,
PR(43), No. 5, May 2010, pp. 1776-1788.
Elsevier DOI 1003
BibRef
Earlier:
Multi-class classification strategies for Fisher scores of gesture and sign sequences,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
Fisher scores; Multi-class classification; Hidden Markov models; Generative and discriminative classifiers; Sign language recognition BibRef

Flasinski, M.[Mariusz], Myslinski, S.[Szymon],
On the use of graph parsing for recognition of isolated hand postures of Polish Sign Language,
PR(43), No. 6, June 2010, pp. 2249-2264.
Elsevier DOI 1003
Sign language; Hand posture recognition; Syntactic pattern recognition; Graph grammar parsing BibRef

Kelly, D.[Daniel], McDonald, J.[John], Markham, C.[Charles],
A person independent system for recognition of hand postures used in sign language,
PRL(31), No. 11, 1 August 2010, pp. 1359-1368.
Elsevier DOI 1008
Feature representation; Moments; Size and shape; Object recognition; Tracking; Classifier design and evaluation BibRef

Kelly, D.[Daniel], McDonald, J.[John], Markham, C.[Charles],
Weakly Supervised Training of a Sign Language Recognition System Using Multiple Instance Learning Density Matrices,
SMC-B(41), No. 2, April 2011, pp. 526-541.
IEEE DOI 1103
BibRef
Earlier:
Evaluation of threshold model HMMS and Conditional Random Fields for recognition of spatiotemporal gestures in sign language,
MLMotion09(490-497).
IEEE DOI 0910
BibRef
And:
Recognizing Spatiotemporal Gestures and Movement Epenthesis in Sign Language,

Continuous recognition of motion based gestures in sign language,
THEMIS09(1073-1080).
IEEE DOI 0910
BibRef
And: IMVIP09(145-150).
IEEE DOI 0909
BibRef
Earlier:
A system for teaching sign language using live gesture feedback,
FG08(1-2).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Kelly, D.[Daniel], Delannoy, J.R.[Jane Reilly], McDonald, J.[John], Markham, C.[Charles],
Incorporating facial features into a multi-channel gesture recognition system for the interpretation of Irish Sign Language sequences,
HCI09(1977-1984).
IEEE DOI 0910
BibRef

Kelly, D., McDonald, J., Lysaght, T., Markham, C.,
Analysis of Sign Language Gestures Using Size Functions and Principal Component Analysis,
IMVIP08(31-36).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Zaki, M.M.[Mahmoud M.], Shaheen, S.I.[Samir I.],
Sign language recognition using a combination of new vision based features,
PRL(32), No. 4, 1 March 2011, pp. 572-577.
Elsevier DOI 1102
Sign language recognition; Appearance based features; Hand gesture; PCA; Kurtosis; Hidden Markov Model (HMM) BibRef

Lee, T.H.[Tae-Hoon], Kam, T.E.[Tae-Eui], Kim, S.P.[Sung-Phil],
A hierarchical stimulus presentation paradigm for a P300-based Hangul speller,
IJIST(21), No. 2, June 2011, pp. 131-138.
DOI Link 1101
BibRef

Buehler, P.[Patrick], Everingham, M.R.[Mark R.], Huttenlocher, D.P.[Daniel P.], Zisserman, A.[Andrew],
Upper Body Detection and Tracking in Extended Signing Sequences,
IJCV(95), No. 2, November 2011, pp. 180-197.
WWW Link. 1109
BibRef
Earlier:
Long Term Arm and Hand Tracking for Continuous Sign Language TV Broadcasts,
BMVC08(xx-yy).
PDF File.
PDF File. Data available. Dataset, Sign Language.
HTML Version. 0809
BibRef

Charles, J.[James], Pfister, T.[Tomas], Everingham, M.R.[Mark R.], Zisserman, A.[Andrew],
Automatic and Efficient Human Pose Estimation for Sign Language Videos,
IJCV(110), No. 1, October 2014, pp. 70-90.
Springer DOI
WWW Link. 1410
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1, A3, A4:
Automatic and Efficient Long Term Arm and Hand Tracking for Continuous Sign Language TV Broadcasts,
BMVC12(4).
DOI Link 1301
Award, BMVC, Best Video. Award, BMVC, HM. BibRef

Pfister, T.[Tomas], Simonyan, K.[Karen], Charles, J.[James], Zisserman, A.[Andrew],
Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Efficient Pose Estimation in Gesture Videos,
ACCV14(I: 538-552).
Springer DOI 1504
BibRef

Pfister, T.[Tomas], Charles, J.[James], Zisserman, A.[Andrew],
Flowing ConvNets for Human Pose Estimation in Videos,
ICCV15(1913-1921)
IEEE DOI 1602
BibRef
And:
Domain-Adaptive Discriminative One-Shot Learning of Gestures,
ECCV14(VI: 814-829).
Springer DOI 1408
BibRef
And:
Large-scale Learning of Sign Language by Watching TV (Using Co-occurrences),
BMVC13(xx-yy).
DOI Link 1402
BibRef

Charles, J.[James], Pfister, T.[Tomas], Magee, D.[Derek], Hogg, D.[David], Zisserman, A.[Andrew],
Personalizing Human Video Pose Estimation,
CVPR16(3063-3072)
IEEE DOI 1612
BibRef
Earlier:
Upper Body Pose Estimation with Temporal Sequential Forests,
BMVC14(xx-yy).
HTML Version. 1410
BibRef
Earlier:
Domain Adaptation for Upper Body Pose Tracking in Signed TV Broadcasts,
BMVC13(xx-yy).
DOI Link 1402
BibRef

Buehler, P.[Patrick], Zisserman, A.[Andrew], Everingham, M.R.[Mark R.],
Learning sign language by watching TV (using weakly aligned subtitles),
CVPR09(2961-2968).
IEEE DOI 0906
BibRef

Kadir, T., Bowden, R., Ong, E.J., Zisserman, A.,
Minimal Training, Large Lexicon, Unconstrained Sign Language Recognition,
BMVC04(xx-yy).
HTML Version. 0508
BibRef

Ciaramello, F.M., Hemami, S.S.,
A Computational Intelligibility Model for Assessment and Compression of American Sign Language Video,
IP(20), No. 11, November 2011, pp. 3014-3027.
IEEE DOI 1110
BibRef

Kosmidou, V.E., Petrantonakis, P.C., Hadjileontiadis, L.J.,
Enhanced Sign Language Recognition Using Weighted Intrinsic-Mode Entropy and Signer's Level of Deafness,
SMC-B(41), No. 6, December 2011, pp. 1531-1543.
IEEE DOI 1112
BibRef

Gamage, N.[Nuwan], Kuang, Y.C.[Ye Chow], Akmeliawati, R.[Rini], Demidenko, S.[Serge],
Gaussian Process Dynamical Models for hand gesture interpretation in Sign Language,
PRL(32), No. 15, 1 November 2011, pp. 2009-2014.
Elsevier DOI 1112
Gesture interpretation; Gaussian Process Dynamical Model; Gaussian Process; Sign Language; Hidden Markov Model BibRef

Khan, S., Gupta, G.S., Bailey, D., Demidenko, S., Messom, C.,
Sign language analysis and recognition: A preliminary investigation,
IVCNZ09(119-123).
IEEE DOI 0911
BibRef

Nguyen, T.D.[Tan Dat], Ranganath, S.[Surendra],
Facial expressions in American sign language: Tracking and recognition,
PR(45), No. 5, May 2012, pp. 1877-1891.
Elsevier DOI 1201
BibRef
Earlier:
Recognizing Continuous Grammatical Marker Facial Gestures in Sign Language Video,
ACCV10(IV: 665-676).
Springer DOI 1011
BibRef
Earlier:
Towards recognition of facial expressions in sign language: Tracking facial features under occlusion,
ICIP08(3228-3231).
IEEE DOI 0810
BibRef
And:
Tracking facial features under occlusions and recognizing facial expressions in sign language,
FG08(1-7).
IEEE DOI 0809
Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (PPCA); Facial feature tracking; Facial expression recognition; American sign language (ASL); Hidden Markov Models (HMM); Bayesian tracking; KLT tracker; Support Vector Machine (SVM) BibRef

Kong, W.W., Ranganath, S.[Surendra],
Signing Exact English (SEE): Modeling and recognition,
PR(41), No. 5, May 2008, pp. 1655-1669.
WWW Link. 0711
BibRef
Earlier:
Automatic hand trajectory segmentation and phoneme transcription for sign language,
FG08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef
Earlier:
3-D hand trajectory recognition for Signing Exact English,
AFGR04(535-540).
WWW Link. 0411
Gesture recognition; Sign language recognition; Handshape recognition; Motion trajectory recognition; Linear discriminant analysis; Clustering; Vector quantization principal component analysis BibRef

Kong, W.W., Ranganath, S.[Surendra],
Towards subject independent continuous sign language recognition: A segment and merge approach,
PR(47), No. 3, 2014, pp. 1294-1308.
Elsevier DOI 1312
Gesture recognition BibRef

de Silva, D.[Dilushinie], Fernando, R.[Rukmal],
Review on sign language recognition methods for supporting communication between deaf and non-deaf persons,
IJCVR(2), No. 4, 2011, pp. 323-329.
DOI Link 1202
BibRef

Sun, C.[Chao], Zhang, T.Z.[Tian-Zhu], Bao, B.K.[Bing-Kun], Xu, C.S.[Chang-Sheng], Mei, T.,
Discriminative Exemplar Coding for Sign Language Recognition With Kinect,
Cyber(43), No. 5, 2013, pp. 1418-1428.
IEEE DOI 1309
Discriminative exemplar coding; Kinect sensor; sign language recognition BibRef
And: A1, A2, A3, A4, Only:
Latent support vector machine for sign language recognition with Kinect,
ICIP13(4190-4194)
IEEE DOI 1402
Kinect sensor;Latent SVM;Sign Language Recognition BibRef

Antonakos, E.[Epameinondas], Pitsikalis, V.[Vassilis], Maragos, P.[Petros],
Classification of extreme facial events in sign language videos,
JIVP(2014), No. 1, 2014, pp. 14.
DOI Link 1404
BibRef

Antonakos, E.[Epameinondas], Pitsikalis, V.[Vassilis], Rodomagoulakis, I.[Isidoros], Maragos, P.[Petros],
Unsupervised classification of extreme facial events using active appearance models tracking for sign language videos,
ICIP12(1409-1412).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Theodorakis, S.[Stavros], Pitsikalis, V.[Vassilis], Rodomagoulakis, I.[Isidoros], Maragos, P.[Petros],
Recognitionwith raw canonical phonetic movement and handshape subunits on videos of continuous Sign Language,
ICIP12(1413-1416).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Theodorakis, S.[Stavros], Pitsikalis, V.[Vassilis], Maragos, P.[Petros],
Dynamic-static unsupervised sequentiality, statistical subunits and lexicon for sign language recognition,
IVC(32), No. 8, 2014, pp. 533-549.
Elsevier DOI 1407
Automatic sign language recognition BibRef

Pitsikalis, V.[Vassilis], Theodorakis, S.[Stavros], Vogler, C.[Christian], Maragos, P.[Petros],
Advances in phonetics-based sub-unit modeling for transcription alignment and sign language recognition,
Gesture11(1-6).
IEEE DOI 1106
BibRef

Roussos, A.[Anastasios], Theodorakis, S.[Stavros], Pitsikalis, V.[Vassilis], Maragos, P.[Petros],
Affine-invariant modeling of shape-appearance images applied on sign language handshape classification,
ICIP10(1417-1420).
IEEE DOI 1009
BibRef

Yi, B., Wang, X., Harris, F.C., Dascalu, S.M.,
sEditor: A Prototype for a Sign Language Interfacing System,
HMS(44), No. 3, June 2014, pp. 1-12.
IEEE DOI 1407
Assistive technology BibRef

Hikawa, H., Kaida, K.,
Novel FPGA Implementation of Hand Sign Recognition System With SOM-Hebb Classifier,
CirSysVideo(25), No. 1, January 2015, pp. 153-166.
IEEE DOI 1502
Hebbian learning BibRef

Rokade, R.S., Doye, D.D.,
Spelled sign word recognition using key frame,
IET-IPR(9), No. 5, 2015, pp. 381-388.
DOI Link 1506
feature extraction BibRef

Lee, K.[Kyungsun], Keum, M.[Minseok], Han, D.K.[David K.], Ko, H.S.[Han-Seok],
Visual Speech Recognition Using Weighted Dynamic Time Warping,
IEICE(E98-D), No. 7, July 2015, pp. 1430-1433.
WWW Link. 1508
BibRef

Koller, O.[Oscar], Forster, J.[Jens], Ney, H.[Hermann],
Continuous sign language recognition: Towards large vocabulary statistical recognition systems handling multiple signers,
CVIU(141), No. 1, 2015, pp. 108-125.
Elsevier DOI 1512
Sign language recognition BibRef

Li, T.S., Kao, M., Kuo, P.,
Recognition System for Home-Service-Related Sign Language Using Entropy-Based K -Means Algorithm and ABC-Based HMM,
SMCS(46), No. 1, January 2016, pp. 150-162.
IEEE DOI 1601
Assistive technology BibRef

Yang, W.W.[Wen-Wen], Tao, J.[Jinxu], Ye, Z.F.[Zhong-Fu],
Continuous sign language recognition using level building based on fast hidden Markov model,
PRL(78), No. 1, 2016, pp. 28-35.
Elsevier DOI 1606
Continuous sign language recognition BibRef

Poularakis, S., Katsavounidis, I.,
Low-Complexity Hand Gesture Recognition System for Continuous Streams of Digits and Letters,
Cyber(46), No. 9, September 2016, pp. 2094-2108.
IEEE DOI 1609
Accuracy BibRef

Lim, K.M.[Kian Ming], Tan, A.W.C.[Alan W.C.], Tan, S.C.A.[Shing Chi-Ang],
Block-based histogram of optical flow for isolated sign language recognition,
JVCIR(40, Part B), No. 1, 2016, pp. 538-545.
Elsevier DOI 1610
Sign language recognition BibRef

Kumar, P.[Pradeep], Gauba, H.[Himaanshu], Roy, P.P.[Partha Pratim], Dogra, D.P.[Debi Prosad],
Coupled HMM-based multi-sensor data fusion for sign language recognition,
PRL(86), No. 1, 2017, pp. 1-8.
Elsevier DOI 1702
Sign language recognition BibRef


Wang, I.[Isaac], Ben Fraj, M.[Mohtadi], Narayana, P.[Pradyumna], Patil, D.[Dhruva], Mulay, G.[Gururaj],
EGGNOG: A Continuous, Multi-modal Data Set of Naturally Occurring Gestures with Ground Truth Labels,
FG17(414-421)
IEEE DOI 1707
Computer science, Gesture recognition, Human computer interaction, Layout, Motion segmentation, Sensors, Skeleton BibRef

Okada, S., Otsuka, K.,
Recognizing Words from Gestures: Discovering Gesture Descriptors Associated with Spoken Utterances,
FG17(430-437)
IEEE DOI 1707
Computational modeling, Feature extraction, Gesture recognition, Hidden Markov models, Motion segmentation, Speech, Trajectory BibRef

Parcheta, Z.[Zuzanna], Martínez-Hinarejos, C.D.[Carlos D.],
Sign Language Gesture Recognition Using HMM,
IbPRIA17(419-426).
Springer DOI 1706
BibRef

Ferreira, P.M.[Pedro M.], Cardoso, J.S.[Jaime S.], Rebelo, A.[Ana],
Multimodal Learning for Sign Language Recognition,
IbPRIA17(313-321).
Springer DOI 1706
BibRef

Islam, M.M., Siddiqua, S., Afnan, J.,
Real time Hand Gesture Recognition using different algorithms based on American Sign Language,
IVPR17(1-6)
IEEE DOI 1704
Assistive technology BibRef

Zhang, C.Y.[Chen-Yang], Tian, Y.[Yingli],
Automatic Video Captioning via Multi-channel Sequential Encoding,
ACVR16(II: 146-161).
Springer DOI 1611
And for ASL. BibRef

Camgöz, N.C.[Necati Cihan], Kindiroglu, A.A.[Ahmet Alp], Akarun, L.[Lale],
Sign Language Recognition for Assisting the Deaf in Hospitals,
HBU16(89-101).
Springer DOI 1611
BibRef

Pansare, J.R., Ingle, M.,
Vision-based approach for American Sign Language recognition using Edge Orientation Histogram,
ICIVC16(86-90)
IEEE DOI 1610
computer vision BibRef

Zhang, C., Tian, Y., Huenerfauth, M.,
Multi-modality American Sign Language recognition,
ICIP16(2881-2885)
IEEE DOI 1610
Assistive technology BibRef

Guo, D., Zhou, W., Wang, M., Li, H.,
Sign language recognition based on adaptive HMMS with data augmentation,
ICIP16(2876-2880)
IEEE DOI 1610
Adaptation models BibRef

Liu, T., Zhou, W., Li, H.,
Sign language recognition with long short-term memory,
ICIP16(2871-2875)
IEEE DOI 1610
Assistive technology BibRef

Alimohammadi, M., Zahedi, M.,
Communication between deaf and hearing children using statistical machine translation,
IPRIA15(1-6)
IEEE DOI 1603
handicapped aids BibRef

Pu, J.F.[Jun-Fu], Zhou, W.G.[Wen-Gang], Zhang, J.H.[Ji-Hai], Li, H.Q.[Hou-Qiang],
Sign Language Recognition Based on Trajectory Modeling with HMMs,
MMMod16(I: 686-697).
Springer DOI 1601
BibRef

Martínez, F.[Fabio], Manzanera, A.[Antoine], Gouiffès, M.[Michèle], Braffort, A.[Annelies],
A Gaussian Mixture Representation of Gesture Kinematics for On-Line Sign Language Video Annotation,
ISVC15(II: 293-303).
Springer DOI 1601
BibRef

Martinez-Camarena, M., Oramas Mogrovejo, J.A.[José Antonio], Tuytelaars, T.,
Towards sign language recognition based on body parts relations,
ICIP15(2454-2458)
IEEE DOI 1512
BibRef

Dong, C.[Cao], Leu, M.C.[Ming C.], Yin, Z.Z.[Zhao-Zheng],
American Sign Language alphabet recognition using Microsoft Kinect,
Hands15(44-52)
IEEE DOI 1510
Accuracy BibRef

Zafrulla, Z., Sahni, H., Bedri, A., Thukral, P., Starner, T.,
Hand detection in American Sign Language depth data using domain-driven random forest regression,
FG15(1-7)
IEEE DOI 1508
object detection BibRef

Pigou, L.[Lionel], Dieleman, S.[Sander], Kindermans, P.J.[Pieter-Jan], Schrauwen, B.[Benjamin],
Sign Language Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Networks,
ChaLearn14(572-578).
Springer DOI 1504
BibRef

Su, J.Y.[Jing-Yong], Srivastava, A.[Anuj], de Souza, F.D.M.[Fillipe D.M.], Sarkar, S.[Sudeep],
Rate-Invariant Analysis of Trajectories on Riemannian Manifolds with Application in Visual Speech Recognition,
CVPR14(620-627)
IEEE DOI 1409
BibRef
Earlier:
Rate-invariant comparisons of covariance paths for visual speech recognition,
NCVPRIPG13(1-4)
IEEE DOI 1408
covariance matrices BibRef

Kuznetsova, A.[Alina], Leal-Taixe, L., Rosenhahn, B.[Bodo],
Real-Time Sign Language Recognition Using a Consumer Depth Camera,
CDC4CV13(83-90)
IEEE DOI 1403
cameras BibRef

Kuznetsova, A.[Alina], Rosenhahn, B.[Bodo],
Hand Pose Estimation from a Single RGB-D Image,
ISVC13(II:592-602).
Springer DOI 1311
BibRef

Oszust, M., Wysocki, M.,
Recognition of signed expressions observed by Kinect Sensor,
AVSS13(220-225)
IEEE DOI 1311
image colour analysis BibRef

Luzardo, M.[Marcos], Karppa, M.[Matti], Laaksonen, J.[Jorma], Jantunen, T.[Tommi],
Head Pose Estimation for Sign Language Video,
SCIA13(349-360).
Springer DOI 1311
BibRef

Viitaniemi, V.[Ville], Karppa, M.[Matti], Laaksonen, J.[Jorma],
Experiments on Recognising the Handshape in Blobs Extracted from Sign Language Videos,
ICPR14(2584-2589)
IEEE DOI 1412
BibRef
Earlier:
2D Appearance Based Techniques for Tracking the Signer Configuration in Sign Language Video Recordings,
ICIAR14(II: 29-38).
Springer DOI 1410
Assistive technology BibRef

Viitaniemi, V.[Ville], Karppa, M.[Matti], Laaksonen, J.[Jorma], Jantunen, T.[Tommi],
Detecting Hand-Head Occlusions in Sign Language Video,
SCIA13(361-372).
Springer DOI 1311
BibRef

Jaballah, K.[Kabil], Jemni, M.[Mohamed],
Fuzzy Analysis of Classifier Handshapes from 3D Sign Language Data,
CIAP13(II:621-630).
Springer DOI 1309
BibRef

Gebre, B.G.[Binyam Gebrekidan], Wittenburg, P.[Peter], Heskes, T.[Tom],
Automatic Signer Diarization: The Mover Is the Signer Approach,

Automatic sign language identification,
ICIP13(2626-2630)
IEEE DOI 1402
BibRef
Earlier: LV13(283-287)
IEEE DOI 1309
signer diarization; speaker diarization Sign language; language identification; sign language identification BibRef

Koller, O., Ney, H., Bowden, R.,
May the force be with you: Force-aligned signwriting for automatic subunit annotation of corpora,
FG13(1-6)
IEEE DOI 1309
gesture recognition BibRef

Forster, J.[Jens], Oberdörfer, C.[Christian], Koller, O.[Oscar], Ney, H.[Hermann],
Modality Combination Techniques for Continuous Sign Language Recognition,
IbPRIA13(89-99).
Springer DOI 1307
BibRef

Gweth, Y.L.[Yannick L.], Plahl, C.[Christian], Ney, H.[Hermann],
Enhanced continuous sign language recognition using PCA and neural network features,
Gesture12(55-60).
IEEE DOI 1207
BibRef

Ragab, A.[Amira], Ahmed, M.[Maher], Chau, S.C.[Siu-Cheung],
Sign Language Recognition Using Hilbert Curve Features,
ICIAR13(143-151).
Springer DOI 1307
See also Shape representation and description using the Hilbert curve. BibRef

Filhol, M.[Michael],
Combining Two Synchronisation Methods in a Linguistic Model to Describe Sign Language,
GW11(194-203).
Springer DOI 1211
BibRef

Gonzalez, M.[Matilde], Collet, C.[Christophe],
Sign Segmentation Using Dynamics and Hand Configuration for Semi-automatic Annotation of Sign Language Corpora,
GW11(204-215).
Springer DOI 1211
BibRef

Delorme, M.[Maxime], Filhol, M.[Michael], Braffort, A.[Annelies],
Thumb Modelling for the Generation of Sign Language,
GW11(151-160).
Springer DOI 1211
BibRef

Gibet, S.[Sylvie], Marteau, P.F.[Pierre-François], Duarte, K.[Kyle],
Toward a Motor Theory of Sign Language Perception,
GW11(161-172).
Springer DOI 1211
BibRef

Crasborn, O.[Onno], Windhouwer, M.[Menzo],
ISOcat Data Categories for Signed Language Resources,
GW11(118-128).
Springer DOI 1211
BibRef

Belgacem, S.[Selma], Chatelain, C.[Clément], Ben-Hamadou, A.[Achraf], Paquet, T.[Thierry],
Hand Tracking Using Optical-Flow Embedded Particle Filter in Sign Language Scenes,
ICCVG12(288-295).
Springer DOI 1210
BibRef

Sheerman-Chase, T., Ong, E.J.[Eng-Jon], Pugeault, N.[Nicolas], Bowden, R.[Richard],
Improving recognition and identification of facial areas involved in Non-Verbal Communication by feature selection,
FG13(1-8)
IEEE DOI 1309
face recognition BibRef

Ong, E.J.[Eng-Jon], Pugeault, N.[Nicolas], Bowden, R.[Richard],
Sign Spotting Using Hierarchical Sequential Patterns with Temporal Intervals,
CVPR14(1931-1938)
IEEE DOI 1409
Machine Learning BibRef

Ong, E.J.[Eng-Jon], Cooper, H.[Helen], Pugeault, N.[Nicolas], Bowden, R.[Richard],
Sign Language Recognition using Sequential Pattern Trees,
CVPR12(2200-2207).
IEEE DOI 1208
BibRef

Cooper, H.[Helen], Pugeault, N.[Nicolas], Bowden, R.[Richard],
Reading the signs: A video based sign dictionary,
ARTEMIS11(914-919).
IEEE DOI 1201
BibRef

Uebersax, D.[Dominique], Gall, J.[Juergen], Van den Bergh, M.[Michael], Van Gool, L.J.[Luc J.],
Real-time sign language letter and word recognition from depth data,
HCI11(383-390).
IEEE DOI 1201
BibRef

Peng, L.[Li], Jiu, X.[Xu],
Research on using sign language in outdoor advertising,
IASP11(699-703).
IEEE DOI 1112
BibRef

Olaso, J.M.[Javier Mikel], Torres, M.I.[María Inés],
Integrating Phonological Knowledge in ASR Systems for Spanish Language,
CIARP10(136-143).
Springer DOI 1011
BibRef

Zafrulla, Z.[Zahoor], Brashear, H.[Helene], Presti, P.[Peter], Hamilton, H.[Harley], Starner, T.E.[Thad E.],
CopyCat: An American Sign Language game for deaf children,
FG11(647).
IEEE DOI 1103
BibRef

Zafrulla, Z.[Zahoor], Brashear, H.[Helene], Yin, P.[Pei], Presti, P.[Peter], Starner, T.E.[Thad E.], Hamilton, H.[Harley],
American Sign Language Phrase Verification in an Educational Game for Deaf Children,
ICPR10(3846-3849).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Zafrulla, Z.[Zahoor], Brashear, H.[Helene], Hamilton, H.[Harley], Starner, T.E.[Thad E.],
A novel approach to American Sign Language (ASL) phrase verification using reversed signing,
CVPR4HB10(48-55).
IEEE DOI 1006
BibRef

McGuire, R.M., Hernandez-Rebollar, J.L., Starner, T.E., Henderson, V., Brashear, H., Ross, D.S.,
Towards a one-way American Sign Language translator,
AFGR04(620-625).
WWW Link. 0411
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Hernandez-Rebollar, J.L., Kyriakopoulos, N., Lindeman, R.W.,
A new instrumented approach for translating American Sign Language into sound and text,
AFGR04(547-552).
WWW Link. 0411
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Waibel, A.[Alex],
Multimodal Interfaces in Support of Human-Human Interaction,
GW09(243-244).
Springer DOI 0902
BibRef

Lefebvre-Albaret, F.[François], Dalle, P.[Patrice],
Body Posture Estimation in Sign Language Videos,
GW09(289-300).
Springer DOI 0902
BibRef

ten Holt, G.A.[Gineke A.], Reinders, M.J.T.[Marcel J. T.], Hendriks, E.A.[Emile A.], de Ridder, H.[Huib], van Doorn, A.J.[Andrea J.],
Influence of Handshape Information on Automatic Sign Language Recognition,
GW09(301-312).
Springer DOI 0902
BibRef

Sansonnet, J.P.[Jean-Paul], Braffort, A.[Annelies], Verrecchia, C.[Cyril],
Towards Interactive Web-Based Virtual Signers: First Step, a Platform for Experimentation Design,
GW09(313-324).
Springer DOI 0902
BibRef

Segouat, J.[Jérémie], Braffort, A.[Annelies],
Toward Modeling Sign Language Coarticulation,
GW09(325-336).
Springer DOI 0902
BibRef

Santemiz, P.[Pinar], Aran, O.[Oya], Saraclar, M.[Murat], Akarun, L.[Lale],
Automatic sign segmentation from continuous signing via multiple sequence alignment,
HCI09(2001-2008).
IEEE DOI 0910
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Bader, T.[Thomas], Räpple, R.[René], Beyerer, J.[Jürgen],
Fast Invariant Contour-Based Classification of Hand Symbols for HCI,
CAIP09(689-696).
Springer DOI 0909
BibRef

Wang, J.[Josiah], Markert, K.[Katja], Everingham, M.R.[Mark R.],
Learning Models for Object Recognition from Natural Language Descriptions,
BMVC09(xx-yy).
PDF File. 0909
BibRef

Cooper, H.[Helen], Bowden, R.[Richard],
Learning signs from subtitles: A weakly supervised approach to sign language recognition,
CVPR09(2568-2574).
IEEE DOI 0906
BibRef
Earlier:
Large Lexicon Detection of Sign Language,
CVHCI07(88-97).
Springer DOI 0710
BibRef

Lichtenauer, J.[Jeroen], Hendriks, E.A.[Emile A.], Reinders, M.[Marcel],
Learning to recognize a sign from a single example,
FG08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Kim, J.H.[Jong-Hwa], Wagner, J.[Johannes], Rehm, M.[Matthias], Andre, E.[Elisabeth],
Bi-channel sensor fusion for automatic sign language recognition,
FG08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Cherniavsky, N.[Neva], Ladner, R.E.[Richard E.], Riskin, E.A.[Eve A.],
Activity detection in conversational sign language video for mobile telecommunication,
FG08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Arendsen, J.[Jeroen], Lichtenauer, J.F.[Jeroen F.], ten Holt, G.[Gineke], van Doorn, A.J.[Andrea J.], Hendriks, E.A.[Emile A.],
Acceptability ratings by humans and automatic gesture recognition for variations in sign productions,
FG08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Lichtenauer, J.F., ten Holt, G., Hendriks, E.A., Reinders, M.J.T., Vanhoutte, A., Kamp, I., Arendsen, J., van Doorn, A.J., de Ridder, H., Wenners, E., Elzenaar, M., Spaai, G., Fortgens, C., Bruins, M.,
A learning environment for sign language,
FG08(1-2).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Chattopadhyay, T.[Tanushyam], Biswas, P.[Provat], Saha, B.[Biswanath], Pal, A.[Arpan],
Gesture Based English Character Recognition for Human Machine Interaction in Interactive Set Top Box Using Multi-factor Analysis,
ICCVGIP08(134-141).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Matsuo, T.[Tadashi], Shirai, Y.[Yoshiaki], Shimada, N.[Nobutaka],
Automatic generation of HMM topology for sign language recognition,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Almeida, A.M.P.[Ana Margarida P.], Condeço, T.[Teresa], Ramos, F.[Fernando], Sousa, Á.[Álvaro], Cotrim, L.[Luísa], Macedo, S.[Sofia], Palha, M.[Miguel],
Signs Workshop: The Importance of Natural Gestures in the Promotion of Early Communication Skills of Children with Developmental Disabilities,
GW07(245-254).
Springer DOI 0705
BibRef

Olivrin, G.J.L.[Guillaume J.L.],
Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes,
GW07(145-150).
Springer DOI 0705
BibRef

Wang, C.L.[Chun-Li], Chen, X.L.[Xi-Lin], Gao, W.[Wen],
Generating Data for Signer Adaptation,
GW07(114-121).
Springer DOI 0705
BibRef

Diamanti, O.[Olga], Maragos, P.[Petros],
Geodesic active regions for segmentation and tracking of human gestures in sign language videos,
ICIP08(1096-1099).
IEEE DOI 0810
BibRef

Kountchev, R., Todorov, V., Kountcheva, R.,
Efficient sign language video representation,
WSSIP08(177-180).
IEEE DOI 0806
BibRef

Thangali, A.[Ashwin], Nash, J.P.[Joan P.], Sclaroff, S.[Stan], Neidle, C.[Carol],
Exploiting phonological constraints for handshape inference in ASL video,
CVPR11(521-528).
IEEE DOI 1106
BibRef

Thangali, A.[Ashwin], Sclaroff, S.[Stan],
An alignment based similarity measure for hand detection in cluttered sign language video,
CVPR4HB09(89-96).
IEEE DOI 0906
BibRef

Athitsos, V.[Vassilis], Neidle, C.[Carol], Sclaroff, S.[Stan], Nash, J.P.[Joan P.], Stefan, A.[Alexandra], Yuan, Q.[Quan], Thangali, A.[Ashwin],
The American Sign Language Lexicon Video Dataset,
CVPR4HB08(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0806
BibRef

Lichtenauer, J.F.[Jeroen F.], ten Holt, G.A.[Gineke A.], Reinders, M.J.T.[Marcel J. T.], Hendriks, E.A.[Emile A.],
Person-Independent 3D Sign Language Recognition,
GW07(69-80).
Springer DOI 0705
BibRef
And: A1, A2, A4, A3:
Sign language detection using 3D visual cues,
AVSBS07(435-440).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Fujimura, K.[Kikuo], Xu, L.J.[Li-Jie],
Sign Recognition Using Constrained Optimization,
ACCV07(II: 32-41).
Springer DOI 0711
Especially for overlapping hands. BibRef

Farhadi, A.[Ali], Forsyth, D.A.[David A.], White, R.[Ryan],
Transfer Learning in Sign language,
CVPR07(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0706
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A2, Only:
Aligning ASL for Statistical Translation Using a Discriminative Word Model,
CVPR06(II: 1471-1476).
IEEE DOI 0606
BibRef

Adamo-Villani, N.[Nicoletta], Beneš, B.[Bedrich], Brisbin, M.[Matt], Hyland, B.[Bryce],
A Natural Interface for Sign Language Mathematics,
ISVC06(I: 70-79).
Springer DOI 0611
BibRef

von Agris, U.[Ulrich], Knorr, M.[Moritz], Kraiss, K.F.[Karl-Friedrich],
The significance of facial features for automatic sign language recognition,
FG08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
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von Agris, U.[Ulrich], Blomer, C.[Christoph], Kraiss, K.F.[Karl-Friedrich],
Rapid signer adaptation for continuous sign language recognition using a combined approach of eigenvoices, MLLR, and MAP,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

von Agris, U.[Ulrich], Schneider, D.[Daniel], Zieren, J.[Jorg], Kraiss, K.F.[Karl-Friedrich],
Rapid Signer Adaptation for Isolated Sign Language Recognition,
V4HCI06(159).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Yang, R.[Ruiduo], Sarkar, S.[Sudeep],
Detecting Coarticulation in Sign Language using Conditional Random Fields,
ICPR06(II: 108-112).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef
And:
Gesture Recognition using Hidden Markov Models from Fragmented Observations,
CVPR06(I: 766-773).
IEEE DOI 0606
BibRef

Incertis, I.G.[Isaac Garcia], García-Bermejo, J.G.[Jaime Gómez], Casanova, E.Z.[Eduardo Zalama],
Hand Gesture Recognition for Deaf People Interfacing,
ICPR06(II: 100-103).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Heloir, A.[Alexis], Gibet, S.[Sylvie],
A Qualitative and Quantitative Characterisation of Style in Sign Language Gestures,
GW07(122-133).
Springer DOI 0705
BibRef

Heloir, A.[Alexis], Gibet, S.[Sylvie], Multon, F.[Franck], Courty, N.[Nicolas],
Captured Motion Data Processing for Real Time Synthesis of Sign Language,
GW05(168-171).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef

Yao, G.L.[Gui-Lin], Yao, H.X.[Hong-Xun], Liu, X.[Xin], Jiang, F.[Feng],
Real Time Large Vocabulary Continuous Sign Language Recognition Based on OP/Viterbi Algorithm,
ICPR06(III: 312-315).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Liu, X.[Xin], Yao, H.X.[Hong-Xun], Yao, G.L.[Gui-Lin], Gao, W.[Wen],
A Novel Volumetric Shape from Silhouette Algorithm Based on a Centripetal Pentahedron Model,
ICPR06(I: 9).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Yang, X.L.[Xiao-Lin], Jiang, F.[Feng], Liu, H.[Han], Yao, H.X.[Hong-Xun], Gao, W.[Wen], Wang, C.L.[Chun-Li],
Visual Sign Language Recognition Based on HMMs and Auto-regressive HMMs,
GW05(80-83).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef

Braffort, A.[Annelies], Lejeune, F.[Fanch],
Spatialised Semantic Relations in French Sign Language: Toward a Computational Modelling,
GW05(37-48).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef

Dreuw, P.[Philippe], Stein, D.[Daniel], Ney, H.[Hermann],
Enhancing a Sign Language Translation System with Vision-Based Features,
GW07(108-113).
Springer DOI 0705
BibRef

Dreuw, P.[Philippe], Steingrube, P.[Pascal], Deselaers, T.[Thomas], Ney, H.[Hermann],
Smoothed Disparity Maps for Continuous American Sign Language Recognition,
IbPRIA09(24-31).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef

Dreuw, P.[Philippe], Forster, J.[Jens], Deselaers, T.[Thomas], Ney, H.[Hermann],
Efficient approximations to model-based joint tracking and recognition of continuous sign language,
FG08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Dreuw, P., Deselaers, T., Rybach, D., Keysers, D., Ney, H.,
Tracking Using Dynamic Programming for Appearance-Based Sign Language Recognition,
FGR06(293-298).
IEEE DOI 0604
BibRef

Zahedi, M., Dreuw, P., Rybach, D., Deselaers, T., Ney, H.,
Geometric Features for Improving Continuous Appearance-based Sign Language Recognition,
BMVC06(III:1019).
PDF File. 0609
BibRef

Dreuw, P.[Philippe], Keysers, D.[Daniel], Deselaers, T.[Thomas], Ney, H.[Hermann],
Gesture Recognition Using Image Comparison Methods,
GW05(124-128).
Springer DOI 0505
See also Discriminative Training for Object Recognition Using Image Patches. BibRef

Zahedi, M.[Morteza], Keysers, D.[Daniel], Ney, H.[Hermann],
Pronunciation Clustering and Modeling of Variability for Appearance-Based Sign Language Recognition,
GW05(68-79).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef
And:
Appearance-Based Recognition of Words in American Sign Language,
IbPRIA05(I:511).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Zahedi, M.[Morteza], Keysers, D.[Daniel], Deselaers, T.[Thomas], Ney, H.[Hermann],
Combination of Tangent Distance and an Image Distortion Model for Appearance-Based Sign Language Recognition,
DAGM05(401).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Lenseigne, B.[Boris], Dalle, P.[Patrice],
Using Signing Space as a Representation for Sign Language Processing,
GW05(25-36).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef

Fujimura, K., Liu, X.[Xia],
Sign Recognition using Depth Image Streams,
FGR06(381-386).
IEEE DOI 0604
for Japanese Sign Language BibRef

Hamada, Y., Shimada, N., Shirai, Y.,
Hand shape estimation under complex backgrounds for sign language recognition,
AFGR04(589-594).
WWW Link. 0411
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Hamada, Y.S.[Yasu-Shi], Shimada, N.[Nobutaka], Shirai, Y.[Yoshiaki],
Hand Shape Estimation Using Sequence of Multi-Ocular Images Based on Transition Network,
VI02(362).
PDF File. 0208
BibRef
Earlier:
Hand Shape Estimation Using Image Transition Network,
HUMO00(161-166).
IEEE Top Reference. 0010
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Imai, A.[Akihiro], Shimada, N.[Nobutaka], Shirai, Y.[Yoshiaki],
Hand Posture Estimation in Complex Backgrounds by Considering Mis-match of Model,
ACCV07(I: 596-607).
Springer DOI 0711
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Shimada, N.[Nobutaka], Kimura, K.[Kousuke], Shirai, Y.[Yoshiaki], Kuno, Y.[Yoshinori],
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Video-based Continuous Sign Language Recognition Using Statistical Methods,
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Quek, F.K.H.[Francis K.H.], McNeill, D.[David], Bryll, R.[Robert], Kirbas, C.[Cemil], Arslan, H.[Hasan], McCullough, K.E.[Karl E.], Furuyama, N.[Nobuhiro], Ansari, R.[Rashid],
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GW99(227).
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GW99(239).
Springer DOI 9903
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Temporal Symbolic Integration Applied to a Multimodal System Using Gestures and Speech,
GW99(291).
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GW99(277).
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Recognition of Japanese Sign Language from Image Sequence Using Color Combination,
ICIP96(III: 511-514).
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A Recognition Approach to Gesture Language Understanding,
ICPR96(III: 431-435).
IEEE DOI 9608
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Chapter on Face Recognition, Detection, Tracking, Gesture Recognition, Fingerprints, Biometrics continues in
Sign Language, Other Languages, Chinese, Arabic .


Last update:Sep 18, 2017 at 11:34:11