9.10.3 Focusing, Autofocus, Auto Focus

Chapter Contents (Back)
Blur. Auto-Focusing. Autofocus.

Stroke, G.W., Peuch, C.P.,
Single-Focus Images Restored from Conventionally Recorded Superposed Coded Multi-Focus Photographs,
OptComm(1), No. 5, November/December 1969, pp. 223-226. BibRef 6911

Tucker, J.H.[James H.], Stark, M.[Margaret],
A focus checking technique for image analysis systems,
PR(14), No. 1-6, 1981, pp. 231-237.
WWW Link. 0309
BibRef

Krotkov, E.P.,
Focusing,
IJCV(1), No. 3, October, 1987, pp. 223-237.
Springer DOI BibRef 8710
Earlier: UPennCIS-86-22, 1986. Solutions to problems with automatic focussing of general purpose cameras. (Is this so hard given the availability of auto focus cameras?). See also Active Computer Vision by Cooperative Focusing and Stereo. BibRef

Krotkov, E.P., and Bajcsy, R.,
Active Vision for Reliable Ranging: Cooperating Focus, Stereo, and Vergence,
IJCV(11), No. 2, October 1993, pp. 187-203.
Springer DOI See also Active Computer Vision by Cooperative Focusing and Stereo. BibRef 9310

Krotkov, E., and Martin, J.P.,
Range From Focus,
CRA86(1093-1098). BibRef 8600

Tejima, Y.[Yasuyuki], Sugawara, S.[Saburo], Yuda, H.[Hideaki],
Auxiliary light projecting apparatus for a focus detecting system,
US_Patent4,870,442, Sep 26, 1989
WWW Link. BibRef 8909

Zhu, Q.M., Hung, Y.Y., Tang, S.H., Shi, D.H.,
Edge Extraction by Active Defocusing,
SV(5), 1991, pp. 253-267. BibRef 9100

Hirao, Y.[Yoshiaki], Kuga, R.[Ryuichiro], Yoneyama, M.[Masayuki],
Video camera with automatic focusing function,
US_Patent5,077,613, Dec 31, 1991
WWW Link. BibRef 9112

Sudaf, H.[Hirofumi], Toyama, M.[Masamichi], Fujiwara, A.[Akihiro], Yamada, K.[Kunihiko],
Automatic focusing device having a settable focus detection area,
US_Patent5,128,768, Jul 7, 1992
WWW Link. BibRef 9207

Inabata, T.[Tatsuo],
Focus detecting optical system including a plurality of focus blocks composed of an integrally molded prism member,
US_Patent5,245,175, Sep 14, 1993
WWW Link. BibRef 9309

Subbarao, M., Choi, T., Nikzad, A.,
Focusing Techniques,
OptEng(32), No. 11, November 1993, pp. 2824-2836. BibRef 9311

Subbarao, M., Wei, T.C., Surya, G.,
Focused Image Recovery from Two Defocused Images Recorded with Different Camera Settings,
IP(4), No. 12, December 1995, pp. 1613-1628.
IEEE DOI 0402
BibRef
Earlier: CVPR94(786-791).
IEEE DOI BibRef

Subbarao, M., and Wei, T.C.,
Depth from Defocus and Rapid Autofocusing: A Practical Approach,
CVPR92(773-776).
IEEE DOI Hardware exhibited at the conference. BibRef 9200

Subbarao, M., Gurumoorthy, N.,
Depth Recovery from Blurred Edges,
CVPR88(498-503).
IEEE DOI BibRef 8800

Subbarao, M.,
Parallel Depth Recovery by Changing Camera Parameters,
ICCV88(149-155).
IEEE DOI BibRef 8800
Earlier:
Direct Recovery of Depth-map I: Differential Methods,
CVWS87(58-65). Depth is recovered from changing the focal length, focal plane distance, and apperature. BibRef

Subbarao, M.[Murali], and Tyan, J.K.[Jenn-Kwei],
Selecting the Optimal Focus Measure for Autofocusing and Depth-from-Focus,
PAMI(20), No. 8, August 1998, pp. 864-870.
IEEE DOI Generate focus error measures. BibRef 9808

Tyan, J.K.[Jenn-Kwei],
Analysis and Application of Autofocusing and Three-Dimensional Shape Recovery Techniques Based on Image Focus and Defocus,
Ph.D.Thesis, EE, SUNY, Stony Brook. 1997. BibRef 9700

Yeo, T.T.E., Ong, S.H., Jayasooriah, Sinniah, R.,
Autofocusing for tissue microscopy,
IVC(11), No. 10, December 1993, pp. 629-639.
WWW Link. 0401
BibRef

McIntyre, D.F.[Dale F.],
Autofocus camera,
US_Patent5,530,512, Jun 25, 1996
WWW Link. BibRef 9606

Capper, D.G.[David G.],
Camera with autofocus and aiming mechanism and method,
US_Patent5,694,632, Dec 2, 1997
WWW Link. Pattern of projected light. BibRef 9712

Martinez Baena, J., Fdez Valdivia, J., Garcia, J.A.,
A Multichannel Autofocusing Scheme for Gray Level Shape Scale Detection,
PR(30), No. 10, October 1997, pp. 1769-1786.
WWW Link. 9712
BibRef

Lohmann, A.W., Mendlovic, D., Zalevsky, Z.,
Digital Method for Measuring the Focus Error,
AppOpt(36), No. 28, October 1 1997, pp. 7204-7209. 9710
BibRef

Kim, S.K., Park, S.R., Paik, J.K.,
Simultaneous Out-of-Focus Blur Estimation and Restoration for Digital Auto-Focusing System,
Consumer(44), No. 3, August 1998, pp. 1071-1075. 9810
BibRef

Kodama, K.[Kazuya], Aizawa, K.[Kiyoharu], Hatori, M.[Mitsutoshi],
Generation of Arbitrarily Focused Images by Using Multiple Differently Focused Images,
JEI(7), No. 1, January 1998, pp. 138-144. 9807
BibRef
Earlier:
Iterative Reconstruction of an All-Focused Image by Using Multiple Differently Focused Images,
ICIP96(III: 551-554).
IEEE DOI BibRef

Kodama, K.[Kazuya], Mo, H.[Hiroshi], Kubota, A.[Akira],
Free Iris Scene Re-Focusing Based on a Three-Dimensional Filtering of Multiple Differently Focused Images,
ICIP06(2033-2036).
IEEE DOI 0610
BibRef

Kazakevich, Y.E.[Yuri E.],
Stereoscopic autofocusing based on comparing the left and right eye images,
US_Patent5,864,359, Jan 26, 1999
WWW Link. BibRef 9901

Kubota, A.[Akira], Aizawa, K.[Kiyoharu],
Reconstructing Arbitrarily Focused Images From Two Differently Focused Images Using Linear Filters,
IP(14), No. 11, November 2005, pp. 1848-1859.
IEEE DOI 0510
BibRef
Earlier:
Virtual view generation by linear processing of two differently focused images,
ICPR02(I: 504-507).
IEEE DOI 0211
BibRef
Earlier:
Inverse Filters for Reconstruction of Arbitrarily Focused Images from Two Differently Focused Images,
ICIP00(Vol I: 101-104).
IEEE DOI 0008
BibRef

Kubota, A., Aizawa, K.,
Arbitrary view and focus image generation: rendering object-based shifting and focussing effect by linear filtering,
ICIP02(I: 489-492).
IEEE DOI 0210
BibRef

Aizawa, K.[Kiyoharu], Kubota, A.[Akira], Kodama, K.[Kazuya],
Implicit 3D Approach to Image Generation: Object-Based Visual Effects by Linear Processing of Multiple Differently Focused Images,
WTRCV01(226). 0103
BibRef

Kubota, A.[Akira], Kodama, K.[Kazuya], Aizawa, K.[Kiyoharu], Hatori, M.[Mitsutoshi],
Registration and Blur Estimation Methods for Multiple Differently Focused Images,
ICIP99(II:447-451).
IEEE DOI BibRef 9900

Aizawa, K.[Kiyoharu], Kodama, K.[Kazuya], Kubota, A.[Akira],
Producing object-based special visual effects by integrating multiple differently focused images: Implicit 3D Approach to Image Content Manipulation,
ICIP99(II:515-519).
IEEE DOI BibRef 9900
Image Content Manipulation by Fusing Multiple Differently Focused Images,
BibRef

Aizawa, K., Kodama, K., Kubota, A.,
Producing Object-Based Special Effects by Fusing Multiple Differently Focused Images,
CirSysVideo(10), No. 2, March 2000, pp. 323.
IEEE Top Reference. 0003
BibRef

Cao, Q.[Qing], Jahns, J.[Jurgen],
Focusing Analysis of the Pinhole Photon Sieve: Individual Far-Field Model,
JOSA-A(19), No. 12, December 2002, pp. 2387-2393.
WWW Link. 0304
BibRef

Lin, S.F.[Sheng-Fuu], Lin, Y.T.[You-Tasi], Su, C.K.[Chien-Kun],
An automatic focusing algorithm,
IJIST(12), No. 6, 2002, pp. 235-238.
WWW Link. 0308
BibRef

Sato, T.[Tatsuya],
Camera having a blur notifying function,
US_Patent6,625,396, Sep 23, 2003
WWW Link. BibRef 0309

Kehtarnavaz, N., Oh, H.J.,
Development and Real-Time Implementation of a Rule-Based Auto-Focus Algorithm,
RealTimeImg(9), No. 3, June 2003, pp. 197-203.
WWW Link. 0310
See also Development and Real-Time Implementation of Auto White Balancing Scoring Algorithm. BibRef

Gamadia, M., Kehtarnavaz, N.,
A Real-time Continuous Automatic Focus Algorithm for Digital Cameras,
Southwest06(163-167).
IEEE DOI 0603
BibRef

Suda, H.[Hirofumi],
Automatic focusing device,
US_Patent6,556,246, Apr 29, 2003
WWW Link. BibRef 0304

Lin, J.L.[Jin-Long], Zhang, C.[Chao], Shi, Q.Y.[Qing-Yun],
Estimating the amount of defocus through a wavelet transform approach,
PRL(25), No. 4, March 2004, pp. 407-411.
WWW Link. 0402
BibRef

Yap, P.T., Raveendran, P.,
Image focus measure based on Chebyshev moments,
VISP(151), No. 2, April 2004, pp. 128-136.
IEEE Abstract. 0406
BibRef

Park, K.R.[Kang Ryoung], Kim, J.H.[Jai-Hie],
A Real-Time Focusing Algorithm for Iris Recognition Camera,
SMC-C(35), No. 3, August 2005, pp. 441-444.
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef
Earlier: ICBA04(410-417).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef

Li, R., Zhang, Y.J.,
Level Selection for Multiscale Fusion of Out-of-Focus Image,
SPLetters(12), No. 9, September 2005, pp. 617-620.
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Zhang, Y.[Ying], Wen, C.Y.[Chang-Yun], Soh, Y.C.[Yeng Chai], Fong, A.M.[Aik Meng],
Adaptive autofocusing: a closed-loop perspective,
JOSA-A(22), No. 4, April 2005, pp. 625-635.
WWW Link. 0601
BibRef

Park, S.Y.[Soon-Yong],
An image-based calibration technique of spatial domain depth-from-defocus,
PRL(27), No. 12, September 2006, pp. 1318-1324.
WWW Link. Depth-from-defocus; Image-based defocus calibration; S-transform 0606
BibRef

Park, S.Y.[Soon-Yong], Moon, J.[Jaekyoung],
Image-Based Calibration of Spatial Domain Depth-from-Defocus and Application to Automatic Focus Tracking,
ACCV06(I:754-763).
Springer DOI 0601
BibRef

Kristan, M.[Matej], Pers, J.[Janez], Perse, M.[Matej], Kovacic, S.[Stanislav],
A Bayes-spectral-entropy-based measure of camera focus using a discrete cosine transform,
PRL(27), No. 13, 1 October 2006, pp. 1431-1439.
WWW Link. 0606
Camera focusing; Spectral methods; DCT; Bayes entropy BibRef

Maik, V., Cho, D., Shin, J.H., Paik, J.K.,
Regularized Restoration Using Image Fusion for Digital Auto-Focusing,
CirSysVideo(17), No. 10, October 2007, pp. 1360-1369.
IEEE DOI 0711
BibRef

Lee, J.S.[Jung-Soo], Yoo, Y.J.[Yoon-Jong], Shin, J.H.[Jeong-Ho], Paik, J.K.[Joon-Ki],
Hierarchical Blur Identification from Severely Out-of-Focus Images,
PSIVT06(1334-1342).
Springer DOI 0612
BibRef

Shin, J.H.[Jeong-Ho], Hwang, S.H.[Sung-Hyun], Kim, K.[Kiman], Kang, J.Y.[Jin-Young], Lee, S.W.[Seong-Won], Paik, J.K.[Joon-Ki],
Blur Identification and Image Restoration Based on Evolutionary Multiple Object Segmentation for Digital Auto-focusing,
IWCIA04(656-668).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A2, A5, A6, Only:
Isotropic Blur Identification for Fully Digital Auto-focusing,
ICIAR05(125-132).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Kim, S.J.[Sang-Jin], Lee, E., Hayes, M.H., Paik, J.K.[Joon-Ki],
Multifocusing and Depth Estimation Using a Color Shift Model-Based Computational Camera,
IP(21), No. 9, September 2012, pp. 4152-4166.
IEEE DOI 1208
BibRef

Maik, V.[Vivek], Cho, D.[Dohee], Kim, S.J.[Sang-Jin], Har, D.H.[Dong-Hwan], Paik, J.K.[Joon-Ki],
Computational filter-aperture approach for single-view multi-focusing,
ICIP09(1541-1544).
IEEE DOI 0911
BibRef

Tian, Y.B.[Yi-Bin], Shieh, K.[Kevin], Wildsoet, C.F.[Christine F.],
Performance of focus measures in the presence of nondefocus aberrations,
JOSA-A(24), No. 12, December 2007, pp. B165-B173.
WWW Link. 0801
BibRef

Sasaki, G.[Gen],
AF control apparatus and AF control method,
US_Patent7,224,397, May 29, 2007
WWW Link. BibRef 0705

Wang, W.W., Shui, P.L., Feng, X.C.,
Variational Models for Fusion and Denoising of Multifocus Images,
SPLetters(15), No. 1, January 2008, pp. 65-68.
IEEE DOI 0801
BibRef

Zhao, H.[Hui], Li, Q.[Qi], Feng, H.J.[Hua-Jun],
Multi-focus color image fusion in the HSI space using the sum-modified-laplacian and a coarse edge map,
IVC(26), No. 9, 1 September 2008, pp. 1285-1295.
WWW Link. 0806
HSI; SML; Multi-focus; Focus measure; Coarse-edge map; Region-filling BibRef

Lee, S.Y., Kumar, Y., Cho, J.M., Lee, S.W., Kim, S.W.,
Enhanced Autofocus Algorithm Using Robust Focus Measure and Fuzzy Reasoning,
CirSysVideo(18), No. 9, September 2008, pp. 1237-1246.
IEEE DOI 0810
BibRef

Thurman, S.T.[Samuel T.], de Rosa, R.T.[Ryan T.], Fienup, J.R.[James R.],
Amplitude metrics for field retrieval with hard-edged and uniformly illuminated apertures,
JOSA-A(26), No. 3, March 2009, pp. 700-709.
WWW Link. 0903
Amplitude and phase from multiple defocused measurements of the system PSF. BibRef

Wu, S.Q.[Shi-Qian], Lin, W.S.[Wei-Si], Xie, S.L.[Shou-Lie], Lu, Z.K.[Zhong-Kang], Ong, E.P.[Ee Ping], Yao, S.[Susu],
Blind blur assessment for vision-based applications,
JVCIR(20), No. 4, May 2009, pp. 231-241.
Elsevier DOI 0905
Blur identification; Point spread function; Line spread function; Blur model; Edge detection; Radon transform; Image interpolation; Blind image quality evaluation BibRef

Li, Y.[Yuan], Ohmura, I.[Isao], Takauji, H.[Hidenori], Kaneko, S.[Shun'ichi], Tanaka, T.[Takayuki],
Robust Focusing using Orientation Code Matching,
ELCVIA(7), No. 3, 2008, pp. xx-yy.
WWW Link. 0909
BibRef

Tolosa, A., Martínez-Cuenca, R., Pons, A., Saavedra, G., Martínez-Corral, M., Javidi, B.,
Optical implementation of micro-zoom arrays for parallel focusing in integral imaging,
JOSA-A(27), No. 3, March 2010, pp. 495-500.
WWW Link. 1003
BibRef

Martinez-Corral, M., Navarro, H., Saavedra, G., Javidi, B.,
Microscopic and macroscopic 3D imaging and display by integral imaging,
3DTV11(1).
IEEE DOI 1105
BibRef

Liu, Z.[Zhi], Li, W.W.[Wei-Wei], Shen, L.Q.[Li-Quan], Han, Z.M.[Zhong-Min], Zhang, Z.Y.[Zhao-Yang],
Automatic segmentation of focused objects from images with low depth of field,
PRL(31), No. 7, 1 May 2010, pp. 572-581.
Elsevier DOI 1004
Focused object segmentation; Low depth of field; Focus energy estimation; Saliency map; Boundary linking; Image matting BibRef

Jin, S.H.[Seung-Hun], Cho, J.[Junguk], Kwon, K.H.[Key Ho], Jeon, J.W.[Jae Wook],
A dedicated hardware architecture for real-time auto-focusing using an FPGA,
MVA(21), No. 5, August 2010, pp. 727-734.
WWW Link. 1011
BibRef

Ciancio, A., Targino da Costa, A.L.N., da Silva, E.A.B., Said, A., Samadani, R., Obrador, P.,
No-Reference Blur Assessment of Digital Pictures Based on Multifeature Classifiers,
IP(20), No. 1, January 2011, pp. 64-75.
IEEE DOI 1101
BibRef

Faundez-Zanuy, M.[Marcos], Mekyska, J.[Jiri], Espinosa-Duro, V.[Virginia],
On the focusing of thermal images,
PRL(32), No. 11, 1 August 2011, pp. 1548-1557.
Elsevier DOI 1108
Thermal image; Focus; Database; Image quality BibRef

Xu, D.J.[Dong-Jiang],
A unified approach to autofocus and alignment for pattern localization using hybrid weighted Hausdorff distance,
PRL(32), No. 14, 15 October 2011, pp. 1747-1755.
Elsevier DOI 1110
Image alignment; Autofocus; Pattern localization; Partial occlusion; Edge-amplitude normalized gradient; Hausdorff distance BibRef

Tsai, D.C., Chen, H.H.,
Reciprocal Focus Profile,
IP(21), No. 2, February 2012, pp. 459-468.
IEEE DOI 1201
Steepre profile easier to autofocus. BibRef

Tsai, D.C., Chen, H.H.,
Focus Profile Modeling,
IP(25), No. 2, February 2016, pp. 818-828.
IEEE DOI 1601
Cameras BibRef

Minhas, R., Mohammed, A.A., Wu, Q.M.J.,
An Efficient Algorithm for Focus Measure Computation in Constant Time,
CirSysVideo(22), No. 1, January 2012, pp. 152-156.
IEEE DOI 1201
BibRef

Gupta, M.[Mohit], Tian, Y.D.[Yuan-Dong], Narasimhan, S.G.[Srinivasa G.], Zhang, L.[Li],
A Combined Theory of Defocused Illumination and Global Light Transport,
IJCV(98), No. 2, June 2012, pp. 146-167.
WWW Link. 1204
BibRef
Earlier:
(De) focusing on global light transport for active scene recovery,
CVPR09(2969-2976).
IEEE DOI 0906
BibRef

Rudnaya, M.E., ter Morsche, H.G., Maubach, J.M.L., Mattheij, R.M.M.,
A Derivative-Based Fast Autofocus Method in Electron Microscopy,
JMIV(44), No. 1, September 2012, pp. 38-51.
WWW Link. 1206
BibRef

Mottelet, S.[Stéphane], de Saint Germain, L.[Luc], Mondin, O.[Olivier],
Smart Depth of Field Optimization Applied to a Robotised View Camera,
JMIV(44), No. 1, September 2012, pp. 1-18.
WWW Link. 1206
(Old style) View camera. Optimize aperature setting BibRef

Li, W.M.[Wei-Ming], Li, Y.F.[You-Fu],
Overall Well-Focused Catadioptric Image Acquisition With Multifocal Images: A Model-Based Method,
IP(21), No. 8, August 2012, pp. 3697-3706.
IEEE DOI 1208
BibRef

Li, W.M.[Wei-Ming], Li, Y.F.[You-Fu], Wu, Y.H.[Yi-Hong],
A Model Based Method for Overall Well Focused Catadioptric Image Acquisition with Multi-focal Images,
CAIP09(460-467).
Springer DOI 0909
BibRef

Liu, N.Z.[Ning-Zhong], Zheng, X.M.[Xing-Ming], Sun, H.[Han], Tan, X.Y.[Xiao-Yang],
Two-dimensional bar code out-of-focus deblurring via the Increment Constrained Least Squares filter,
PRL(34), No. 2, 15 January 2013, pp. 124-130.
Elsevier DOI 1212
Two-dimensional bar code; Image deblurring; Increment Constrained Least Squares filter BibRef

Pertuz, S., Puig, D., Garcia, M.A., Fusiello, A.,
Generation of All-in-Focus Images by Noise-Robust Selective Fusion of Limited Depth-of-Field Images,
IP(22), No. 3, March 2013, pp. 1242-1251.
IEEE DOI 1301
BibRef

Pertuz, S.[Said], Garcia, M.A.[Miguel Angel], Puig, D.[Domenec],
Efficient Focus Sampling Through Depth-of-Field Calibration,
IJCV(112), No. 3, May 2015, pp. 342-353.
WWW Link. 1505
BibRef

Lee, J.[Jinhee], Paik, J.[Joonki],
Uniform depth region-based registration between colour channels and its application to single camera-based multifocusing,
IET-IPR(7), No. 1, 2013, pp. 50-60.
DOI Link 1303
BibRef

Ahn, S.[Sangwoo], Chong, J.[Jongwha],
A Novel Search Approach for Blur Kernel Estimation of Defocused Image Restoration,
IEICE(E96-D), No. 3, March 2013, pp. 754-757.
WWW Link. 1303
BibRef

Zografos, V.[Vasileios], Lenz, R.[Reiner], Felsberg, M.[Michael],
The Weibull manifold in low-level image processing: An application to automatic image focusing,
IVC(31), No. 5, May 2013, pp. 401-417.
Elsevier DOI 1305
Weibull distribution; Image processing; Weibull manifold; Image autofocus BibRef

Cao, Y., Fang, S., Wang, Z.,
Digital Multi-Focusing From a Single Photograph Taken With an Uncalibrated Conventional Camera,
IP(22), No. 9, 2013, pp. 3703-3714.
IEEE DOI 1309
Defocus blur;depth estimation;image restoration;multi-focusing BibRef

Chun, M.G.[Myung Geun], Kong, S.G.[Seong G.],
Focusing in thermal imagery using morphological gradient operator,
PRL(38), No. 1, 2014, pp. 20-25.
Elsevier DOI 1402
Morphological gradient BibRef

Yang, T.[Tao], Zhang, Y.N.[Yan-Ning], Yu, R.[Rui], Zhang, X.Q.[Xiao-Qiang], Chen, T.[Ting], Ran, L.Y.[Ling-Yan], Song, Z.X.[Zheng-Xi], Ma, W.G.[Wen-Guang],
Simultaneous active camera array focus plane estimation and occluded moving object imaging,
IVC(32), No. 8, 2014, pp. 510-521.
Elsevier DOI 1407
Camera array BibRef

Vu, D.T., Chidester, B., Yang, H.S.[Hong-Sheng], Do, M.N., Lu, J.B.[Jiang-Bo],
Efficient Hybrid Tree-Based Stereo Matching With Applications to Postcapture Image Refocusing,
IP(23), No. 8, August 2014, pp. 3428-3442.
IEEE DOI 1408
aggregation BibRef

Marston, T.M., Plotnick, D.S.,
Semiparametric Statistical Stripmap Synthetic Aperture Autofocusing,
GeoRS(53), No. 4, April 2015, pp. 2086-2095.
IEEE DOI 1502
geophysical image processing BibRef

Lin, Y.B.[Yen-Bor], Young, C.P.[Chung-Ping], Lin, C.H.[Chih-Hung],
Non-iterative and spatial domain focus map estimation based on intentional re-blur from a single image (NasBirSi),
JVCIR(26), No. 1, 2015, pp. 80-93.
Elsevier DOI 1502
Focus map BibRef

Chen, R.[Rudi], van Beek, P.[Peter],
Improving the accuracy and low-light performance of contrast-based autofocus using supervised machine learning,
PRL(56), No. 1, 2015, pp. 30-37.
Elsevier DOI 1503
Autofocusing BibRef

McGraw, T.[Tim],
Fast Bokeh effects using low-rank linear filters,
VC(31), No. 5, May 2015, pp. 601-611.
Springer DOI 1505
approximation of camera defocus effects from focused scene and depth map. BibRef

Yitzhaky, Y.[Yitzhak], Aloni, D.[Doron],
Integral imaging for 3D object detection,
SPIE(Newsroom), July 29, 2015
DOI Link 1511
Focused features are located and segmented using computational reconstructions. BibRef

Galstian, T.[Tigran],
Novel approach to autofocus imaging for mobile cameras,
SPIE(Newsroom), September 2, 2015
DOI Link 1511
The anisotropic nature of electrically tunable liquid crystal lenses is fully harnessed in a cost-effective and successful approach. BibRef

Gaidhane, V.H.[Vilas H.], Hote, Y.V.[Yogesh V.], Singh, V.[Vijander],
Image focus measure based on polynomial coefficients and spectral radius,
SIViP(9), No. 1 Supp, December 2015, pp. 203-211.
WWW Link. 1601
BibRef

Zhang, X.X.[Xin-Xin], Wang, R.G.[Rong-Gang], Jiang, X.B.[Xiu-Bao], Wang, W.M.[Wen-Min], Gao, W.[Wen],
Spatially variant defocus blur map estimation and deblurring from a single image,
JVCIR(35), No. 1, 2016, pp. 257-264.
Elsevier DOI 1602
Spatially variant blur BibRef

Yan, R.M.[Ruo-Mei], Shao, L.[Ling],
Blind Image Blur Estimation via Deep Learning,
IP(25), No. 4, April 2016, pp. 1910-1921.
IEEE DOI 1604
BibRef
Earlier:
Image Blur Classification and Parameter Identification Using Two-stage Deep Belief Networks,
BMVC13(xx-yy).
DOI Link 1402
Estimation BibRef

Yi, X., Eramian, M.,
LBP-Based Segmentation of Defocus Blur,
IP(25), No. 4, April 2016, pp. 1626-1638.
IEEE DOI 1604
image restoration BibRef

Saad, E., Hirakawa, K.,
Defocus Blur-Invariant Scale-Space Feature Extractions,
IP(25), No. 7, July 2016, pp. 3141-3156.
IEEE DOI 1606
cameras BibRef

Jeong, Y.[Yuna], Lee, S.[Sangmin], Kwon, S.[Soonhyeon], Lee, S.[Sungkil],
Expressive chromatic accumulation buffering for defocus blur,
VC(32), No. 6-8, June 2016, pp. 1025-1034.
WWW Link. 1608
BibRef

Haque, S.[Samiul], Rahman, S.M.M.[S.M. Mahbubur], Hatzinakos, D.[Dimitrios],
Gaussian-Hermite moment-based depth estimation from single still image for stereo vision,
JVCIR(41), No. 1, 2016, pp. 281-295.
Elsevier DOI 1612
Anaglyph image BibRef

Jemec, J.[Jurij], Pernuš, F.[Franjo], Likar, B.[Boštjan], Bürmen, M.[Miran],
2D Sub-pixel Point Spread Function Measurement Using a Virtual Point-Like Source,
IJCV(121), No. 3, February 2017, pp. 391-402.
Springer DOI 1702
PSF measurement BibRef

Kanojia, G., Raman, S.,
Postcapture Focusing Using Regression Forest,
SPLetters(24), No. 6, June 2017, pp. 751-755.
IEEE DOI 1705
image reconstruction, regression analysis, center selection problem, focus-aperture combinations, image reconstruction, postcapture control, random regression forest, Apertures, Cameras, Image reconstruction, Lenses, Principal component analysis, Training, Vegetation, Photography, random forest, refocusing BibRef

Liu, Y.[Yutao], Gu, K.[Ke], Zhai, G.T.[Guang-Tao], Liu, X.M.[Xian-Ming], Zhao, D.B.[De-Bin], Gao, W.[Wen],
Quality assessment for real out-of-focus blurred images,
JVCIR(46), No. 1, 2017, pp. 70-80.
Elsevier DOI 1706
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A3, A4, A5, Only:
Quality assessment for out-of-focus blurred images,
VCIP15(1-4)
IEEE DOI 1605
Visual, quality, assessment. Cameras BibRef

Tung, S.S.[Shih-Shuo], Hwang, W.L.[Wen-Liang],
Multiple depth layers and all-in-focus image generations by blurring and deblurring operations,
PR(69), No. 1, 2017, pp. 184-198.
Elsevier DOI 1706
Image, depth, estimation BibRef

Pertuz, S.[Said], Garcia, M.A.[Miguel Angel], Puig, D.[Domenec], Arguello, H.[Henry],
A Closed-Form Focus Profile Model for Conventional Digital Cameras,
IJCV(124), No. 3, September 2017, pp. 273-286.
Springer DOI 1708
a new model for describing the focus of conventional digital cameras. BibRef

Li, X.F.[Xiong-Fei], Wang, L.L.[Ling-Ling], Wang, J.[Jing], Zhang, X.[Xiaoli],
Multi-focus image fusion algorithm based on multilevel morphological component analysis and support vector machine,
IET-IPR(11), No. 10, October 2017, pp. 919-926.
DOI Link 1710
BibRef


Wei, Z.Q.[Zhao-Qi], Su, X.Q.[Xiu-Qin],
Autofocus window selection algorithm based on visual saliency,
ICIVC17(720-723)
IEEE DOI 1708
Dogs, Image sequences, Visualization, auto-focus, computer vision, self-adaptability, visual saliency, window, selection, algorithm BibRef

Wu, Y., Sun, C., Zeng, B., Xie, D., Liu, S., Chen, X.,
Geometry-based PSF estimation and deblurring of defocused images with depth information,
VCIP16(1-4)
IEEE DOI 1701
Apertures BibRef

Chen, D.J., Chen, H.T., Chang, L.W.,
Fast defocus map estimation,
ICIP16(3962-3966)
IEEE DOI 1610
Detectors BibRef

Kofoed, B.[Bart], Janssen, E.[Eric], de With, P.H.N.[Peter H.N.],
Dynamic focus control for preventing motion blur,
AVSS15(1-6)
IEEE DOI 1511
Cameras BibRef

Kang, P.C.[Pu-Chuan], Lin, H.Y.[Huei-Yung],
Intelligent autofocus with adaptive depth of field,
MVA15(463-466)
IEEE DOI 1507
Apertures;Digital cameras;Focusing;Image edge detection;Lenses BibRef

Zhang, Z.[Zheng], Liu, Y.[Yu], Tan, X.[Xin], Zhang, M.J.[Mao-Jun],
Robust Sharpness Metrics Using Reorganized DCT Coefficients for Auto-Focus Application,
ACCV14(IV: 172-187).
Springer DOI 1504
BibRef

Fang, X.Y.[Xian-Yong], Shen, F.[Feng], Guo, Y.W.[Yan-Wen], Jacquemin, C.[Christian], Zhou, J.[Jian], Huang, S.C.[Shan-Chun],
A consistent pixel-wise blur measure for partially blurred images,
ICIP14(496-500)
IEEE DOI 1502
Equations BibRef

Mavridaki, E.[Eftichia], Mezaris, V.[Vasileios],
No-reference blur assessment in natural images using Fourier transform and spatial pyramids,
ICIP14(566-570)
IEEE DOI 1502
Fourier transforms See also comprehensive aesthetic quality assessment method for natural images using basic rules of photography, A. BibRef

Huang, H.J.[Hui-Juan], Christodoulou, A.G.[Anthony G.], Sun, W.D.[Wei-Dong],
Super-resolution hyperspectral imaging with unknown blurring by low-rank and group-sparse modeling,
ICIP14(2155-2159)
IEEE DOI 1502
Hyperspectral imaging BibRef

Karaali, A.[Ali], Jung, C.R.[Claudio Rosito],
Adaptive scale selection for multiresolution defocus blur estimation,
ICIP14(4597-4601)
IEEE DOI 1502
Estimation BibRef

Tsai, D.C.[Dong-Chen], Chen, H.H.[Homer H.],
Transformation of focus profiles for digital autofocus,
ICIP15(1070-1074)
IEEE DOI 1512
BibRef
Earlier:
Smooth control of continuous autofocus,
ICIP12(373-376).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef
Earlier:
Effective autofocus decision using reciprocal focus profile,
ICIP11(621-624).
IEEE DOI 1201
Autofocus; digital camera; focus measurement; focus profile BibRef

Neverova, N.[Natalia], Konik, H.[Hubert],
Edge-based method for sharp region extraction from low depth of field images,
VCIP12(1-6).
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Bimber, O.[Oliver], Qureshi, H.[Haroon], Grundhöfer, A.[Anselm], Grosse, M.[Max], Danch, D.[Daniel],
Adaptive Coded Aperture Photography,
ISVC11(I: 54-65).
Springer DOI 1109
In JPEG compressed images. BibRef

Fang, S., Jin, R., Cao, Y.,
Fast depth estimation from single image using structured forest,
ICIP16(4022-4026)
IEEE DOI 1610
Decision trees BibRef

Cao, Y.[Yang], Fang, S.[Shuai], Wang, F.[Feng],
Single Image Multi-focusing Based on Local Blur Estimation,
ICIG11(168-175).
IEEE DOI 1109
BibRef

Ladha, S.N.[Shamsuddin N.], Smith-Miles, K.[Kate], Chandran, S.[Sharat],
Projection defocus correction using adaptive kernel sampling and geometric correction in dual-planar environments,
PROCAMS11(9-14).
IEEE DOI 1106
Correction of focus blur in the projector. BibRef

Chen, D.Q.[De-Qing], Shao, H.[Hang], Dai, Q.H.[Qiong-Hai],
Robust focal length estimation based on minimal solution method,
3DTV11(1-4).
IEEE DOI 1105
BibRef

Vaquero, D.A.[Daniel A.], Gelfand, N.[Natasha], Tico, M.[Marius], Pulli, K.[Kari], Turk, M.A.[Matthew A.],
Generalized autofocus,
WACV11(511-518).
IEEE DOI 1101
BibRef

Zhong, S.H.[Sheng-Hua], Liu, Y.[Yan], Liu, Y.[Yang], Chung, F.L.[Fu-Lai],
A semantic no-reference image sharpness metric based on top-down and bottom-up saliency map modeling,
ICIP10(1553-1556).
IEEE DOI 1009
BibRef

Bilcu, R.C.[Radu Ciprian], Alenius, S.[Sakari], Vehvilainen, M.[Markku],
A novel method for multi-focus image fusion,
ICIP09(1525-1528).
IEEE DOI 0911
BibRef

Liu, W.[Wei], Shen, J.[Jin], Tan, B.[Boxue],
Autofocusing Image System of CD-SEM,
CISP09(1-3).
IEEE DOI 0910
BibRef

Huhle, B.[Benjamin], Schairer, T.[Timo], Schilling, A.[Andreas], Straßer, W.[Wolfgang],
Optimal Alignment of 3D Data for Spatial Discretization,
CRV11(355-362).
IEEE DOI 1105
BibRef

Huhle, B.[Benjamin], Schairer, T.[Timo], Jenke, P.[Philipp], Straßer, W.[Wolfgang],
Realistic Depth Blur for Images with Range Data,
Dyn3D09(84-95).
Springer DOI 0909
Inverse of the shape, depth from blur. Change effective camera parameters after acquisition. BibRef

Kusumoto, N.[Natsumi], Hiura, S.[Shinsaku], Sato, K.[Kosuke],
Uncalibrated synthetic aperture for defocus control,
CVPR09(2552-2559).
IEEE DOI 0906
BibRef

Makkapati, V.V.[Vishnu V.],
Improved wavelet-based microscope autofocusing for blood smears by using segmentation,
CASE09(208-211).
WWW Link. 0908
BibRef
And:
Segmentation based microscope autofocusing for blood smears,
SPIE(7260), 2009,
DOI Link BibRef

Oyamada, Y.[Yuji], Saito, H.[Hideo],
Defocus Blur Correcting Projector-Camera System,
ACIVS08(xx-yy).
Springer DOI 0810
BibRef
Earlier:
Focal Pre-Correction of Projected Image for Deblurring Screen Image,
PROCAMS07(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0706
BibRef

Joshi, N.[Neel], Szeliski, R.[Richard], Kriegman, D.J.[David J.],
PSF estimation using sharp edge prediction,
CVPR08(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0806
BibRef

Ahmad, M.B.[Muhammad Bilal],
Focus measure operator using 3D gradient,
ICMV07(18-22).
IEEE DOI 0712
BibRef

Dai, Z.J.[Zhi-Jun], Wu, Y.H.[Yi-Hong],
Where Are Focused Places of a Photo?,
Visual07(73-83).
Springer DOI 0706
BibRef

Gierl, C.[Christian], Kondo, T., Voos, H., Kongprawechon, W., Phoojaruenchanachai, S.,
Image Processing Algorithms for an Auto Focus System for Slit Lamp Microscopy,
ACIVS07(909-919).
Springer DOI 0708
BibRef

Okatani, T.[Takayuki], Deguchi, K.[Koichiro],
Estimating Scale of a Scene from a Single Image Based on Defocus Blur and Scene Geometry,
CVPR07(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0706
BibRef

Hsu, W.[Wei], Fuh, C.S.[Chiou-Shann],
A New Sampling Method of Auto Focus for Voice Coil Motor in Camera Modules,
PSIVT06(1254-1263).
Springer DOI 0612
BibRef

Song, Y.[Yu], Li, M.T.[Man-Tian], Sun, L.[Lining],
A New Auto-focusing Algorithm for Optical Microscope Based Automated System,
ICARCV06(1-5).
IEEE DOI 0612
BibRef

Yao, Y.[Yi], Abidi, B.R.[Besma R.], Tousek, M.[Michael], Abidi, M.A.[Mongi A.],
Auto-focusing in Extreme Zoom Surveillance: A System Approach with Application to Faces,
ISVC06(I: 401-410).
Springer DOI 0611
BibRef

Yao, Y.[Yi], Abidi, B.R.[Besma R.], Abidi, M.A.[Mongi A.],
Digital Imaging with Extreme Zoom: System Design and Image Restoration,
CVS06(52).
IEEE DOI 0602
Focusing, restoration, etc. E.g. astronomy, aerial monitoring. BibRef

Dubowy, J.N., Herman, G.T.,
An Approach to the Correction of Distance-Dependent Defocus in Electron Microscopic Reconstruction,
ICIP05(III: 748-751).
IEEE DOI 0512
BibRef

Antunes, M.[Mark], Trachtenberg, M.[Michael], Thomas, G.[Gabriel], Shoa, T.[Tina],
All-in-Focus Imaging Using a Series of Images on Different Focal Planes,
ICIAR05(174-181).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Kubota, A.[Akira], Kodama, K.[Kazuya], Hatori, Y.[Yoshinori],
Image-Based Refocusing by 3D Filtering,
PSIVT07(385-398).
Springer DOI 0712
BibRef

Yoshida, T., Yokota, A., Kashiyama, H., Hamamoto, T.,
Smart image sensor for high speed in-focus detection,
ICIP04(IV: 2837-2840).
IEEE DOI 0505
BibRef

Dijk, J.[Judith], van Ginkel, M.[Michael], van Asselt, R.J.[Rutger J.], van Vliet, L.J.[Lucas J.], Verbeek, P.W.[Piet W.],
A New Sharpness Measure Based on Gaussian Lines and Edges,
CAIP03(149-156).
Springer DOI 0311
BibRef

Schlag, J.F.[John F.], Sanderson, A.C.[Arthur C.], Neuman, C.P.[Charles P.], and Wimberly, F.C.[Francis C.],
Implementation of Automatic Focusing Algorithms for a Computer Vision System with Camera Control,
CMU-RI-TR-83-14, CMU Robotics Institute, 1983. Select various focusing algorithms which have been proposed, implement these on a simple vision system (POPEYE), compare the results, and look at modifications (combinations?) which will work better. BibRef 8300

Allegro, S.[Silvia], Chanel, C., Jacot, J.,
Autofocus for Automated Microassembly under a Microscope,
ICIP96(II: 677-680).
IEEE DOI BibRef 9600

Binefa, X., Vitria, J.,
A Contrast-Based Focusing Criterium,
ICPR96(I: 805-809).
IEEE DOI 9608
(Univ. of Barcelona, E) BibRef

Elder, J.[James], Zucker, S.W.[Steven W.],
Shadows, defocus and reliable estimation,
CAIP95(318-325).
Springer DOI 9509
BibRef

Viitanen, J., Rzeszutko, M.,
Using multiple coaxial images for determining the focal gradient in a range camera,
ICIP95(I: 235-238).
IEEE DOI 9510
BibRef

Horii, A.,
The Focusing Mechanism in the KTH Head-Eye System,
ISRN KTH/NA/P--92/15--SE, June 1992.
HTML Version. Longer Postscript:
PS File. BibRef 9206

Chapter on 3-D Shape from X -- Shading, Textures, Lasers, Structured Light, Focus, Line Drawings continues in
Motion from Blur, Motion Blur .


Last update:Nov 11, 2017 at 13:31:57