21.3.3 Eye Tracking, Pupil Tracking

Chapter Contents (Back)
Eye Tracking. Eye tracking may also be performed by more direct (some mechanical) methods, especially involving low level lights with detection. Most of those are skipped, and image anaysis based techniques are the primary focus. Gaze focused papers: See also Gaze Tracking, Gaze Determination. See also Active Vision: Gaze Control. See also Driver Monitoring, Eyes, Gaze. See also Finding Facial Features, Eye Detection. See also Eye, Gaze Computer Interface, Applied Gaze Tracking. See also Facial Feature Tracking for Expressions.

Tobii,
2001.
WWW Link. and
WWW Link. Vendor, Eye Tracking. Eye tracking for general applications. With and without special glasses. Variety of systems.

Polehemus, Eye Tracking,
2005.
WWW Link. Vendor, Eye Tracking. Also does motion tracking and 3-D Laser Scanner

Seeing Machines,
2000.
WWW Link. Vendor, Eye Tracking. Vendor, Driver Monitoring. Vendor, Face Tracking. Head, face, eye, gaze tracking. Face tracker for including in larger systems. Australia.

Avotec,
2001.
HTML Version. Vendor, Eye Tracking. A set of eye tracking systems.

openEyes,
2006.
WWW Link. Code, Eye Tracking. Open source code for eye tracking. See also Starburst: A hybrid algorithm for video-based eye tracking combining feature-based and model-based approaches.

Gesture Central,
1996.
WWW Link. Vendor, Eye Tracking. Vendor, Motion Capture. Eye tracking system. The company also has a simple head gesture interface. And a 3 camera motion capture system.

IScan, Inc.,
1997.
WWW Link. Vendor, Eye Tracking.

Arrington Research,
1997.
WWW Link. Vendor, Eye Tracking.

Applied Science Laboratories,
1962.
WWW Link. Vendor, Eye Tracking. Video based eye tracking, head mounted tracker

SMI: Senso Motric Instruments GmbH,
1991.
WWW Link. Vendor, Eye Tracking. Eye tracking systems.

Yarbus, A.,
Eye Movments and Vision,
Plenum1967. More about what happens, how it happens, and the meaning than tracking, but much of the basis for doing eye tracking. BibRef 6700

Rinard, G.A.[George A.], Rugg, D.E.[Donald E.], Steffen, D.A.[Dale A.],
Method and apparatus for monitoring the position of the eye,
US_Patent4,145,122, Mar 20, 1979
WWW Link. Uses mirror on glasses. BibRef 7903

Garwin, R.L.[Richard L.], Levine, J.L.[James L.],
Eye controlled information transfer,
US_Patent4,595,990, Jun 17, 1986
WWW Link. BibRef 8606

Waldorf, R.A.[Ronald A.],
Infrared/video electronystagmographic apparatus,
US_Patent4,815,839, Mar 28, 1989
WWW Link. Eye tracking goggles. BibRef 8903

Hutchinson, T.E.[Thomas E.],
Eye movement detector,
US_Patent4,836,670, Jun 6, 1989
WWW Link. IR Tracking BibRef 8906

Velez, J.[Jose], Borah, J.D.[Joshua D.],
Visor and camera providing a parallax-free field-of-view image for a head-mounted eye movement measurement system,
US_Patent4,852,988, Aug 1, 1989
WWW Link. BibRef 8908

Tomono, A.[Akira], Iida, M.[Muneo], Ohmura, K.[Kazunori],
Eye tracking image pickup apparatus for separating noise from feature portions,
US_Patent5,016,282, May 14, 1991
WWW Link. BibRef 9105

Kasahara, T.[Tatsuya],
Eye movement analyzing device utilizing pupil center-of-gravity data,
US_Patent5,070,883, Dec 10, 1991
WWW Link. BibRef 9112

Adachi, T.[Toshiya],
Device for measuring a retina reflected light amount and a gaze detecting apparatus using the same,
US_Patent5,325,133, Jun 28, 1994
WWW Link. BibRef 9406

Gerhardt, L.A.[Lester A.], Sabolcik, R.M.[Ross M.],
Eye tracking apparatus and method employing grayscale threshold values,
US_Patent5,481,622, Jan 2, 1996
WWW Link. BibRef 9601

Ivins, J.P., Porrill, J., Frisby, J.P.,
Deformable Model of the Human Iris for Measuring Ocular Torsion from Video Images,
VISP(145), No. 3, June 1998, pp. 213-220. 9808
BibRef

Ivins, J.P., Porrill, J.,
A Deformable Model of the Human Iris for Measuring Small 3-Dimensional Eye Movements,
MVA(11), No. 1, 1998, pp. 42-51.
Springer DOI 9808
BibRef

Yee, K.[Kingman],
Linear array eye tracker,
US_Patent5,966,197, Oct 12, 1999
WWW Link. BibRef 9910
And: US_Patent6,283,954, Sep 4, 2001
WWW Link. BibRef

Smeraldi, F., Carmona, O., Bigün, J.,
Saccadic search with Gabor features applied to eye detection and real-time head tracking,
IVC(18), No. 4, March 2000, pp. 323-329.
WWW Link. 0003
BibRef

Smeraldi, F., Bigun, J.,
Facial feature detection by saccadic exploration of the Gabor decomposition,
ICIP98(III: 163-167).
IEEE DOI 9810
BibRef

Morimoto, C.H., Koons, D., Amir, A., Flickner, M.D.,
Pupil detection and tracking using multiple light sources,
IVC(18), No. 4, March 2000, pp. 331-335.
WWW Link. 0003
BibRef
Earlier:
Frame-Rate Pupil Detector and Gaze Tracker,
Frame-Rate99().
HTML Version. BibRef

Kim, S.B.[Seong-Beom],
Eye position detecting apparatus and method therefor,
US_Patent6,072,892, Jun 6, 2000
WWW Link. BibRef 0006

Amir, A.[Arnon], Zimet, L.[Lior], Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.[Alberto], Kao, S.[Sean],
An embedded system for an eye-detection sensor,
CVIU(98), No. 1, April 2005, pp. 104-123.
WWW Link. 0412
BibRef

Sirohey, S.A.[Saad A.], Rosenfeld, A.[Azriel], Duric, Z.,
A method of detecting and tracking irises and eyelids in video,
PR(35), No. 6, June 2002, pp. 1389-1401.
WWW Link. 0203
BibRef
Earlier:
Eye Tracking,
UMD--TR4041, August 1999.
WWW Link. BibRef

Sirohey, S.A.[Saad A.], Rosenfeld, A.[Azriel],
Eye detection in a face image using linear and nonlinear filters,
PR(34), No. 7, July 2001, pp. 1367-1391.
WWW Link. 0105
BibRef
Earlier:
Eye Detection,
UMD--TR3971, December 1998.
WWW Link. BibRef

Bergström, P.[Peter],
Eye-movement-controlled transform image coders,
SP:IC(18), No. 2, February 2003, pp. 115-125.
WWW Link. 0301
BibRef

Bayro-Corrochano, E.[Eduardo],
Modeling the 3D kinematics of the eye in the geometric algebra framework,
PR(36), No. 12, December 2003, pp. 2993-3012.
WWW Link. 0310
BibRef

Gulliver, S.R., Ghinea, G.,
A Perceptual Comparison of Empirical and Predictive Region-of-Interest Video,
SMC-A(39), No. 4, July 2009, pp. 744-753.
IEEE DOI 0906
BibRef

Ji, Q.A.[Qi-Ang], Wechsler, H.[Harry], Duchowski, A.T.[Andrew T.], Flickner, M.D.[Myron D.],
Special issue: eye detection and tracking,
CVIU(98), No. 1, April 2005, pp. 1-3.
WWW Link. 0412
BibRef

Witzner Hansen, D.[Dan], Pece, A.E.C.[Arthur E.C.],
Eye tracking in the wild,
CVIU(98), No. 1, April 2005, pp. 155-181.
WWW Link. 0412
BibRef
Earlier:
Eye typing off the shelf,
CVPR04(II: 159-164).
IEEE DOI 0408
BibRef
Earlier:
Iris tracking with feature free contours,
AMFG03(208-214).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Witzner Hansen, D.[Dan], Hansen, J.P.[John Paulin], Nielsen, M., Johansen, A.S.,
Eye typing using Markov and active appearance models,
WACV02(132-136).
WWW Link. 0303
BibRef

Witzner Hansen, D.[Dan], Hansen, J.P.[John Paulin],
Robustifying Eye Interaction,
V4HCI06(152).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Chung, A.J.[Adrian J.], Deligianni, F.[Fani], Hu, X.P.[Xiao-Peng], Yang, G.Z.[Guang-Zhong],
Extraction of visual features with eye tracking for saliency driven 2D/3D registration,
IVC(23), No. 11, 1 October 2005, pp. 999-1008.
WWW Link. 0510
BibRef

Itti, L.[Laurent],
Quantifying the contribution of low-level saliency to human eye movements in dynamic scenes,
Visual Cognition(12), No. 6, 2005, pp. 1093-1123.
DOI Link BibRef 0500

Villanueva, A.[Arantxa], Cabeza, R.[Rafael], Porta, S.[Sonia],
Eye tracking: Pupil orientation geometrical modeling,
IVC(24), No. 7, July 2006, pp. 663-679.
WWW Link. 0608
Gaze tracking; Eye tracking; Eye movement modeling; Calibration BibRef

Goni, S., Echeto, J., Villanueva, A.[Arantxa], Cabeza, R.[Rafael],
Robust algorithm for pupil-glint vector detection in a video-oculography eyetracking system,
ICPR04(IV: 941-944).
IEEE DOI 0409
BibRef

Witzner Hansen, D.[Dan], Hammoud, R.I.[Riad I.],
An improved likelihood model for eye tracking,
CVIU(106), No. 2-3, May-June 2007, pp. 220-230.
WWW Link. 0705
BibRef
Earlier:
Boosting particle filter-based eye tracker performance through adapted likelihood function to reflexions and light changes,
AVSBS05(111-116).
IEEE DOI 0602
Eye position tracking; Filtering; Observation models; Structured infrared light; Non-visible spectrum; Eye tracking systems and countermeasures; HCI BibRef

Witzner Hansen, D.[Dan], Satria, R., Sorensen, J., Hammoud, R.I.[Riad I.],
Improved Likelihood Function in Particle-based IR Eye Tracking,
OTCBVS05(III: 5-5).
IEEE DOI 0507
BibRef

Hammoud, R.I.[Riad I.], (Ed.)
Passive Eye Monitoring: Algorithms, Applications and Experiments,
Springer-VerlagNew York, 2008 ISBN: 978-3-540-75411-4
WWW Link. Survey, Eye Tracking. Buy this book: Passive Eye Monitoring: Algorithms, Applications and Experiments (Signals and Communication Technology) BibRef 0800

Duchowski, A.T.,
Eye Tracking Methodology: Theory and Practice,
Springer2007. ISBN 978-1-84628-608-7. Second Edition.
WWW Link. Survey, Eye Tracking. A guide to the setup and operation of such systems. Buy this book: Eye Tracking Methodology: Theory and Practice BibRef 0700

Han, Y.,
Imitation of Human-Eye Motion: How to Fix Gaze of an Active Vision System,
SMC-A(37), No. 6, November 2007, pp. 854-863.
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Khosravi, M.H.[Mohammad Hossein], Safabakhsh, R.[Reza],
Human eye sclera detection and tracking using a modified time-adaptive self-organizing map,
PR(41), No. 8, August 2008, pp. 2571-2593.
WWW Link. 0805
Human eye detection; Eye sclera motion tracking; Time-adaptive SOM; TASOM; Active contour modeling; GVF snake BibRef

Yu, Z.W.[Zhi-Wen], Wong, H.S.[Hau-San],
A Rule Based Technique for Extraction of Visual Attention Regions Based on Real-Time Clustering,
MultMed(9), No. 4, 2007, pp. 766-784.
IEEE DOI 0905
BibRef

Lim, J.H., Liu, Y.,
Modeling the Influences of Cyclic Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processes for Reinforcement Learning in Eye Movements,
SMC-A(39), No. 4, July 2009, pp. 706-714.
IEEE DOI 0906
BibRef

Orozco, J.[Javier], Roca, F.X.[F. Xavier], Gonzàlez, J.[Jordi],
Real-time gaze tracking with appearance-based models,
MVA(20), No. 6, October 2009, pp. xx-yy.
Springer DOI 0910
BibRef
Earlier:
Deterministic and Stochastic Methods for Gaze Tracking in Real-Time,
CAIP07(45-52).
Springer DOI 0708
BibRef

Orozco, J., Gonzàlez, J., Rius, I., Roca, F.X.,
Hierarchical Eyelid and Face Tracking,
IbPRIA07(I: 499-506).
Springer DOI 0706
BibRef

Li, Y.L.[Ya-Li], Wang, S.J.[Sheng-Jin], Ding, X.Q.[Xiao-Qing],
Eye/eyes tracking based on a unified deformable template and particle filtering,
PRL(31), No. 11, 1 August 2010, pp. 1377-1387.
Elsevier DOI 1008
Eye/eyes tracking; Deformable template; Particle filter; Eye parameters capturing BibRef

Gabbur, P.[Prasad], Hua, H.[Hong], Barnard, K.[Kobus],
A fast connected components labeling algorithm and its application to real-time pupil detection,
MVA(21), No. 5, August 2010, pp. 779-787.
WWW Link. 1011
BibRef

Nitschke, C.[Christian], Nakazawa, A.[Atsushi], Takemura, H.[Haruo],
Display-camera calibration using eye reflections and geometry constraints,
CVIU(115), No. 6, June 2011, pp. 835-853.
Elsevier DOI 1104
BibRef
Earlier:
Display-camera calibration from eye reflections,
ICCV09(1226-1233).
IEEE DOI 0909
BibRef
And:
Eye reflection analysis and application to display-camera calibration,
ICIP09(3449-3452).
IEEE DOI 0911
Display-camera system; Calibration; Image analysis; Visual system; Human eye model; Eye pose estimation; Corneal reflection; Catadioptric imaging BibRef

Nitschke, C.[Christian], Nakazawa, A.[Atsushi],
Super-Resolution from Corneal Images,
BMVC12(22).
DOI Link 1301
BibRef

Nakazawa, A.[Atsushi], Nitschke, C.[Christian],
Point of Gaze Estimation through Corneal Surface Reflection in an Active Illumination Environment,
ECCV12(II: 159-172).
Springer DOI 1210
BibRef

Yan, C.[Chao], Wang, Y.Q.[Yuang-Qing], Zhang, Z.Y.[Zhao-Yang],
Robust real-time multi-user pupil detection and tracking under various illumination and large-scale head motion,
CVIU(115), No. 8, August 2011, pp. 1223-1238.
Elsevier DOI 1101
Eye detection; Real AdaBoost; Real support vector machine; Correlation matching; Kalman forecast BibRef

Hamshari, H.O.[Hussein O.], Beauchemin, S.S.[Steven S.],
A real-time framework for eye detection and tracking,
RealTimeIP(6), No. 4, December 2011, pp. 235-245.
WWW Link. 1111
BibRef

Rigas, I.[Ioannis], Economou, G.[George], Fotopoulos, S.[Spiros],
Biometric identification based on the eye movements and graph matching techniques,
PRL(33), No. 6, 15 April 2012, pp. 786-792.
Elsevier DOI 1203
Behavioral biometrics; Eye movements; Face perception; Minimum spanning tree; Wald-Wolfowitz test BibRef

Vikram, T.N.[Tadmeri Narayan], Tscherepanow, M.[Marko], Wrede, B.[Britta],
A saliency map based on sampling an image into random rectangular regions of interest,
PR(45), No. 9, September 2012, pp. 3114-3124.
Elsevier DOI 1206
Visual attention; Saliency map; Salient region detection; Eye-gaze prediction; Bottom-up attention BibRef

Xu, J.[Juan], Ishikawa, H., Wollstein, G., Kagemann, L., Schuman, J.S.,
Alignment of 3-D Optical Coherence Tomography Scans to Correct Eye Movement Using a Particle Filtering,
MedImg(31), No. 7, July 2012, pp. 1337-1345.
IEEE DOI 1208
BibRef

He, Q., Wei, N., Li, B., Hu, C., Meng, M.Q.H.,
Marker-based quadri-ocular tracking system for surgery,
IET-CV(6), No. 5, 2012, pp. 435-441.
DOI Link 1210
BibRef

Sun, X.S.[Xiao-Shuai], Yao, H.X.[Hong-Xun], Ji, R.R.[Rong-Rong],
Visual attention modeling based on short-term environmental adaption,
JVCIR(24), No. 2, February 2013, pp. 171-180.
Elsevier DOI 1302
Visual attention modeling; Saliency detection; Short-term environmental adaption; Adaptive sparse representation; Independent component analysis; Adaptive saliency measurement; Conditional self information; Eye fixation prediction BibRef

Bernet, S.[Sacha], Cudel, C.[Christophe], Lefloch, D.[Damien], Basset, M.[Michel],
Autocalibration-based partioning relationship and parallax relation for head-mounted eye trackers,
MVA(24), No. 2, February 2013, pp. 393-406.
WWW Link. 1302
BibRef

Engelke, U., Liu, H., Wang, J., Le Callet, P., Heynderickx, I., Zepernick, H.J., Maeder, A.,
Comparative Study of Fixation Density Maps,
IP(22), No. 3, March 2013, pp. 1121-1133.
IEEE DOI 1302
BibRef

Coutinho, F.L.[Flavio L.], Morimoto, C.H.[Carlos H.],
Improving Head Movement Tolerance of Cross-Ratio Based Eye Trackers,
IJCV(101), No. 3, February 2013, pp. 459-481.
WWW Link. 1303
BibRef

Wang, J.[Junle], da Silva, M.P., Le Callet, P., Ricordel, V.,
Computational Model of Stereoscopic 3D Visual Saliency,
IP(22), No. 6, 2013, pp. 2151-2165.
IEEE DOI 1307
three-dimensional displays; eye-tracking BibRef

Hwang, B.[Byunghun], Jang, Y.M.[Young-Min], Mallipeddi, R.[Rammohan], Lee, M.H.[Min-Ho],
Probing of human implicit intent based on eye movement and pupillary analysis for augmented cognition,
IJIST(23), No. 2, 2013, pp. 114-126.
DOI Link human intention, cognitive filter, Bayesian, eye movement, intent probe 1307
BibRef

Qian, X.L.[Xiao-Liang], Han, J.[Junwei], Cheng, G.[Gong], Guo, L.[Lei],
Optimal contrast based saliency detection,
PRL(34), No. 11, 1 August 2013, pp. 1270-1278.
Elsevier DOI 1306
Saliency detection; Sparse coding; Optimal contrast; Multi-scale; Eye tracking BibRef

Rezazadegan Tavakoli, H.[Hamed], Rahtu, E.[Esa], Heikkilä, J.[Janne],
Stochastic bottom-up fixation prediction and saccade generation,
IVC(31), No. 9, 2013, pp. 686-693.
Elsevier DOI 1308
Saccadic eye movement BibRef

Markuš, N.[Nenad], Frljak, M.[Miroslav], Pandžic, I.S.[Igor S.], Ahlberg, J.[Jörgen], Forchheimer, R.[Robert],
Eye pupil localization with an ensemble of randomized trees,
PR(47), No. 2, 2014, pp. 578-587.
Elsevier DOI 1311
Eye pupil localization BibRef

Ren, Y.[Yan], Wang, S.[Shuang], Hou, B.[Biao], Ma, J.J.[Jing-Jing],
A Novel Eye Localization Method With Rotation Invariance,
IP(23), No. 1, January 2014, pp. 226-239.
IEEE DOI 1402
face recognition BibRef

Zhong, M.[Ma], Zhao, X.[Xinbo], Zou, X.C.[Xiao-Chun], Wang, J.Z.[James Z.], Wang, W.[Wenhu],
Markov chain based computational visual attention model that learns from eye tracking data,
PRL(49), No. 1, 2014, pp. 1-10.
Elsevier DOI 1410
Attention model BibRef

Kang, Z.[Ziho], Landry, S.J.,
An Eye Movement Analysis Algorithm for a Multielement Target Tracking Task: Maximum Transition-Based Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering,
HMS(45), No. 1, February 2015, pp. 13-24.
IEEE DOI 1502
matrix algebra BibRef

Coetzer, R.C., Hancke, G.P.,
Development of a robust active infrared-based eye tracker,
IET-CV(8), No. 6, 2014, pp. 523-534.
DOI Link 1502
cameras BibRef

Whitelam, C.[Cameron], Bourlai, T.[Thirimachos],
Accurate eye localization in the Short Waved Infrared Spectrum through summation range filters,
CVIU(139), No. 1, 2015, pp. 59-72.
Elsevier DOI 1509
Eye detection BibRef

Song, B.S.[Byoung-Sub], Park, M.C.[Min-Chul], Yano, S.[Sumio],
New ophthalmic device for measuring binocular accommodation responses,
SPIE(Newsroom), January 8, 2016
DOI Link 1602
The photorefraction of IR light and astigmatism from a cylindrical lens are used to assess variations in the human eye as a function of perceived depth information. BibRef

Zhou, X.[Xuan], Gao, X.[Xin], Wang, J.J.[Jia-Jun], Yu, H.[Hui], Wang, Z.Y.[Zhi-Yong], Chi, Z.[Zheru],
Eye tracking data guided feature selection for image classification,
PR(63), No. 1, 2017, pp. 56-70.
Elsevier DOI 1612
Eye tracking BibRef

Fuhl, W.[Wolfgang], Tonsen, M.[Marc], Bulling, A.[Andreas], Kasneci, E.[Enkelejda],
Pupil detection for head-mounted eye tracking in the wild: An evaluation of the state of the art,
MVA(27), No. 8, November 2016, pp. 1275-1288.
Springer DOI 1612
BibRef

Zhang, X., Sugano, Y.[Yusuke], Fritz, M., Bulling, A.[Andreas],
It's Written All Over Your Face: Full-Face Appearance-Based Gaze Estimation,
DeepAffective17(2299-2308)
IEEE DOI 1709
Cameras, Estimation, Face, Three-dimensional displays, Training, Two, dimensional, displays BibRef

Fuhl, W.[Wolfgang], Kübler, T.[Thomas], Sippel, K.[Katrin], Rosenstiel, W.[Wolfgang], Kasneci, E.[Enkelejda],
ExCuSe: Robust Pupil Detection in Real-World Scenarios,
CAIP15(I:39-51).
Springer DOI 1511
BibRef

Tibdewal, M.N.[Manish N.], Fate, R.R.[Rohan R.], Mahadevappa, M., Ray, K.[Kumar], Malokar, M.[Monika],
Classification of artifactual EEG signal and detection of multiple eye movement artifact zones using novel Time-amplitude algorithm,
SIViP(11), No. 2, February 2017, pp. 333-340.
Springer DOI 1702
BibRef

Chen, X.[Xiu], Chen, Z.Z.[Zhen-Zhong],
Exploring visual attention using random walks based eye tracking protocols,
JVCIR(45), No. 1, 2017, pp. 147-155.
Elsevier DOI 1704
Eye tracking BibRef

Zhang, Y.X.[Ying-Xue], Chen, Z.Z.[Zhen-Zhong],
Revisiting visual attention identification based on eye tracking data analytics,
VCIP16(1-4)
IEEE DOI 1701
Algorithm design and analysis BibRef

Araujo, G.M.[Gabriel M.], Ribeiro, F.M.L.[Felipe M. L.], Júnior, W.S.S.[Waldir S. S.], da Silva, E.A.B.[Eduardo A. B.], Goldenstein, S.K.[Siome K.],
Weak Classifier for Density Estimation in Eye Localization and Tracking,
IP(26), No. 7, July 2017, pp. 3410-3424.
IEEE DOI 1706
Detectors, Estimation, Face, Facial features, Feature extraction, Shape, Tracking, Feature density estimation, fiducial point localization, object detection, tracking BibRef

Salehi, N.[Nasrin], Keyvanara, M.[Maryam], Monadjemi, A.[Amirhassan],
Robust Real-Time Gradient-based Eye Detection and Tracking Using Transform Domain and PSO-Based Feature Selection,
ELCVIA(16), No. 1, 2017, pp. 15-32.
WWW Link. 1708
BibRef

Fang, Y., Zhang, C., Li, J., Lei, J., Perreira da Silva, M., Le Callet, P.[Patrick],
Visual Attention Modeling for Stereoscopic Video: A Benchmark and Computational Model,
IP(26), No. 10, October 2017, pp. 4684-4696.
IEEE DOI 1708
discrete cosine transforms, feature extraction, image sequences, motion estimation, stereo image processing, video signal processing, computational model, depth motion features, discrete cosine transform coefficients, eye fixation data, eye tracking database, feature contrast, large scale eye tracking database, motion contrast, planar motion features, spatial saliency computation, stereoscopic video saliency detection models, stereoscopic video sequences, uncertainty weighting, Computational modeling, Databases, Visualization, Visual attention, gestalt theory, spatiotemporal saliency detection. BibRef


Fuhl, W.[Wolfgang], Santini, T., Kasneci, E.[Enkelejda],
Fast and Robust Eyelid Outline and Aperture Detection in Real-World Scenarios,
WACV17(1089-1097)
IEEE DOI 1609
Apertures, Eyelashes, Eyelids, Feature extraction, Image edge detection, Iris recognition, Optimization BibRef

Hsieh, Y.Y.[Yi-Yu], Liu, C.C.[Chia-Chen], Wang, W.L.[Wei-Lin], Chuang, J.H.[Jen-Hui],
Investigating Size Personalization for More Accurate Eye Tracking Glasses,
HCICV16(III: 239-248).
Springer DOI 1704
BibRef

Krafka, K., Khosla, A., Kellnhofer, P., Kannan, H., Bhandarkar, S., Matusik, W., Torralba, A.,
Eye Tracking for Everyone,
CVPR16(2176-2184)
IEEE DOI 1612
BibRef

Raptis, G.E.[George E.], Fidas, C.A.[Christos A.], Avouris, N.M.[Nikolaos M.],
Differences of Field Dependent/Independent Gamers on Cultural Heritage Playing: Preliminary Findings of an Eye-Tracking Study,
EuroMed16(II: 199-206).
Springer DOI 1611
BibRef

Dong, W.H.[Wei-Hua], Liao, H.[Hua],
Eye Tracking To Explore The Impacts Of Photorealistic 3d Representations In Pedstrian Navigation Performance,
ISPRS16(B2: 641-645).
DOI Link 1610
BibRef

Anantrasirichai, N., Gilchrist, I.D., Bull, D.R.,
Fixation identification for low-sample-rate mobile eye trackers,
ICIP16(3126-3130)
IEEE DOI 1610
Feature extraction BibRef

Borsato, F.H., Aluani, F.O., Morimoto, C.H.,
A Fast and Accurate Eye Tracker Using Stroboscopic Differential Lighting,
ACVR15(502-510)
IEEE DOI 1602
Cameras BibRef

Zhou, M.C.[Ming-Cai], Wang, X.[Xiying], Wang, H.T.[Hai-Tao], Heo, J.[Jingu], Nam, D.[Dong_Kyung],
Precise eye localization with improved SDM,
ICIP15(4466-4470)
IEEE DOI 1512
Coarse-to-fine; Eye center localization; Multiple nonlinear feature; SDM BibRef

Ge, G.[Gary], Yun, K.[Kiwon], Samaras, D.[Dimitris], Zelinsky, G.J.[Gregory J.],
Action classification in still images using human eye movements,
Cognition15(16-23)
IEEE DOI 1510
Computer vision BibRef

Rhee, J.H.[Ji Hye], Sung, W.J.[Won Jun], Nam, M.Y.[Mi Young], Byun, H.R.[Hye-Ran], Rhee, P.K.[Phill Kyu],
An Efficient Eye Tracking Using POMDP for Robust Human Computer Interaction,
CVS15(415-423).
Springer DOI 1507
BibRef

Charoenpong, T.[Theekapun], Pattrapisetwong, P.[Preeyanan], Mahasitthiwat, V.[Visan],
A new method to detect nystagmus for vertigo diagnosis system by eye movement velocity,
MVA15(174-177)
IEEE DOI 1507
Accuracy BibRef

Benrachou, D.E.[Djamel Eddine], Neves dos Santos, F.[Filipe], Boulebtateche, B.[Brahim], Bensaoula, S.[Salah],
Automatic Eye Localization; Multi-block LBP vs. Pyramidal LBP Three-Levels Image Decomposition for Eye Visual Appearance Description,
IbPRIA15(718-726).
Springer DOI 1506
BibRef

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A Low-Cost Head and Eye Tracking System for Realistic Eye Movements in Virtual Avatars,
MMMod14(I: 461-472).
Springer DOI 1405
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Cross-cultural detection of depression from nonverbal behaviour,
FG15(1-8)
IEEE DOI 1508
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A2, A4, A5, A6, Only:
Eye movement analysis for depression detection,
ICIP13(4220-4224)
IEEE DOI 1402
cultural aspects. Eye movement; active appearance model; affective sensing; shape analysis BibRef

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ICPR12(242-245).
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ICIP12(421-424).
IEEE DOI 1302
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From Saliency to Eye Gaze: Embodied Visual Selection for a Pan-Tilt-Based Robotic Head,
ISVC11(I: 135-146).
Springer DOI 1109
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Gaze10(410-419).
Springer DOI 1109
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Chamaret, C., Chevet, J.C., Le Meur, O.,
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ICIP10(1077-1080).
IEEE DOI 1009
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Chamaret, C.[Christel], Le Meur, O.[Olivier],
Attention-based video reframing: Validation using eye-tracking,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
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Reconstruction of display and eyes from a single image,
CVPR10(1442-1449).
IEEE DOI 1006
From reflections on the cornea. Used for gaze. BibRef

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A Real Time Eye-Motion Monitoring System,
WSSIP09(1-5).
IEEE DOI 0906
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Kirbis, M., Kramberger, I.,
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WSSIP09(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0906
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A Real-Time Adaptive Learning Method for Driver Eye Detection,
DICTA08(300-304).
IEEE DOI 0812
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CVS09(325-334).
Springer DOI 0910
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Valenti, R.[Roberto], Yucel, Z.[Zeynep], Gevers, T.[Theo],
Robustifying eye center localization by head pose cues,
CVPR09(612-618).
IEEE DOI 0906
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Valenti, R.[Roberto], Gevers, T.[Theo],
Accurate eye center location and tracking using isophote curvature,
CVPR08(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0806
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Thacker, N.A., Leek, C.,
Retina Sampling Feature Detection and Saccades; A Statistical Perspective.,
BMVC07(xx-yy).
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Using Structured Illumination to Enhance Video-Based Eye Tracking,
ICIP07(I: 373-376).
IEEE DOI 0709
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Xiong, F.[Fei], Zhang, Y.[Yi], Zhang, G.L.[Gui-Lin],
A Pupil Localization Algorithm Based on Adaptive Gabor Filtering and Negative Radial Symmetry,
EMMCVPR07(87-96).
Springer DOI 0708
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Koh, E.J.[Eun Jin], Rhee, P.K.[Phill Kyu],
Merging and Arbitration Strategy Applied Bayesian Classification for Eye Location,
SSPR06(881-888).
Springer DOI 0608
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Wang, J.[Jun], Yin, L.J.[Li-Jun],
Detecting and Tracking Eyes Through Dynamic Terrain Feature Matching,
VHCI05(III: 78-78).
IEEE DOI 0507
See also Static topographic modeling for facial expression recognition and analysis. BibRef

Li, D.H.[Dong-Heng], Winfield, D., Parkhurst, D.J.,
Starburst: A hybrid algorithm for video-based eye tracking combining feature-based and model-based approaches,
VHCI05(III: 79-79).
IEEE DOI
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See also openEyes. BibRef

Li, D.H.[Dong-Heng], Babcock, J., Parkhurst, D.J.,
openEyes: A low-cost head-mounted eye-tracking solution,
Conference2006. Proceedings of the ACM Eye Tracking Research and Applications Symposium
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Terzic, K.[Kasim], Rodrigues, J.M.F.[Joao M.F.], du Buf, J.M.H.[J.M. Hans],
Fast cortical keypoints for real-time object recognition,
ICIP13(3372-3376)
IEEE DOI 1402
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Real-Time Object Recognition Based on Cortical Multi-scale Keypoints,
IbPRIA13(314-321).
Springer DOI 1307
Computer vision BibRef

Rodrigues, J.M.F.[João M.F.], du Buf, J.M.H.[J.M. Hans],
Invariant Multi-scale Object Categorisation and Recognition,
IbPRIA07(I: 459-466).
Springer DOI 0706
BibRef
Earlier:
Face Recognition by Cortical Multi-scale Line and Edge Representations,
ICIAR06(II: 329-340).
Springer DOI 0610
BibRef
Earlier:
Multi-scale Cortical Keypoint Representation for Attention and Object Detection,
IbPRIA05(II:255).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef
Earlier:
Visual Cortex Frontend: Integrating Lines, Edges, Keypoints, and Disparity,
ICIAR04(I: 664-671).
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Yang, P.[Peng], Du, B.[Bo], Shan, S.G.[Shi-Guang], Gao, W.[Wen],
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ICIP04(I: 67-70).
IEEE DOI 0505
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Rurainsky, J.[Jurgen], Eisert, P.[Peter],
Eye Center Localization Using Adaptive Templates,
FaceVideo04(67).
IEEE DOI 0502
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Bagci, A.M., Ansari, R., Khokhar, A., Cetin, E.,
Eye tracking using Markov models,
ICPR04(III: 818-821).
IEEE DOI 0409
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Cohn, J.F., Reed, L.I., Moriyama, T., Xiao, J.[Jing], Schmidt, K., Ambadar, Z.,
Multimodal coordination of facial action, head rotation, and eye motion during spontaneous smiles,
AFGR04(129-135).
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Dual-state Parametric Eye Tracking,
AFGR00(110-115).
IEEE DOI 0003
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Kapoor, A.[Ashish], Qi, Y.[Yuan], and Picard, R.W.[Rosalind W.],
Fully Automatic Upper Facial Action Recognition,
AMFG03(195-202).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
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Kapoor, A., Picard, R.W.,
Real-time, fully automatic upper facial feature tracking,
AFGR02(8-13).
IEEE DOI 0206
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Kapoor, A.[Ashish],
Automatic Facial Action Analysis,
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A Flexible Eyetracker for Psychological Applications,
WACV00(201-206).
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WWW Link. From Nose BibRef

Huang, W., Mariani, R.,
Face Detection and Precise Eyes Location,
ICPR00(Vol IV: 722-727).
IEEE DOI 0009
BibRef

Bergasa, L.M., Mazo, M., Gardel, A., Barea, R., Boquete, L.,
Commands Generation by Face Movements Applied to the Guidance of a Wheelchair for Handicapped People,
ICPR00(Vol IV: 660-663).
IEEE DOI 0009
BibRef

Haro, A.[Antonio], Flickner, M.D.[Myron D.], Essa, I.A.[Irfan A.],
Detecting and Tracking Eyes by using their Physiological Properties, Dynamics, and Appearance,
CVPR00(I: 163-168).
IEEE DOI 0005
pairs of eyes => multiple people BibRef

Bakic, V., Stockman, G.,
Real-time Tracking of Face Features and Gaze Direction Determination,
WACV98(256-257).
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Yeasin, M.[Mohammed], Kuniyoshi, Y.[Yasuo],
Detecting and Tracking Human Face and Eye using Space-Varying Sensor and an Active Vision Head,
CVPR00(II: 168-173).
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Rits Eye: A Software-Based System for Realtime Face Detection and Tracking Using Pan-Tilt-Zoom Controllable Camera,
ICPR98(Vol II: 1194-1197).
IEEE DOI 9808
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Eye Tracking and Animation for MPEG-4 Coding,
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IEEE DOI 9808
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Active Face Tracking and Pose Estimation in an Interactive Room,
CVPR96(67-72).
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Brinicombe, A.M., Boyce, J.F., Durnell, L.,
Direction of regard determination,
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Iris Localisation for a Head-Mounted Eye Tracker,
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ICIP94(I: 421-425).
IEEE DOI 9411
BibRef
And: A2, A1, A3, A4:
Automatic measurement of the angle of squint by Hough-transformation and covariance-filtering,
ICPR94(A:784-786).
IEEE DOI 9410
BibRef

Moore, S.T., Haslwanter, T., Curthoys, I.S., Smith, S.T.,
Measurement of three dimensional eye position using image processing: a geometric approach,
ICIP94(I: 436-440).
IEEE DOI 9411
BibRef

Chapter on Face Recognition, Detection, Tracking, Gesture Recognition, Fingerprints, Biometrics continues in
Gaze Tracking, Gaze Determination .


Last update:Sep 18, 2017 at 11:34:11