21.5.1 Biometrics, Surveys, Analysis, Datasets, Legal Issues, Privacy, Philosophy

Chapter Contents (Back)
Survey, Biometrics. Biometrics. See also Biometrics, Privacy Issues. For some similar privacy issues: See also Surveillance Systems, Privacy Protection, Issues, Techniques, Face Obscuration.

The BANCA Database,
2007.
WWW Link. Dataset, Biometrics.

Golfarelli, M., Maio, D.[Dario], Maltoni, D.[Davide],
On the Error-Reject Trade-Off in Biometric Verification Systems,
PAMI(19), No. 7, July 1997, pp. 786-796.
IEEE DOI 9708
BibRef

Lawton, G.[George],
Biometrics: A New Era in Security,
Computer(31), No. 8, August 1998, pp. 16-18. Survey, Biometrics. An Industry Trends column that provides a brief survey of the field. Not a technical paper. BibRef 9808

Jain, A.K.[Anil K.], Bolle, R.M.[Ruud M.], Pankanti, S.[Sharath],
Biometrics: The Personal Identification in Networked Society,
KluwerAcademic, Norwell, MA, January 1999. ISBN 0-7923-8345-1.
WWW Link. Indexed as: BibRef 9901 BIDNS99 BibRef

Pankanti, S.[Sharath], Bolle, R.M.[Ruud M.], Jain, A.K.[Anil K.],
Biometrics: The Future of Identification,
Computer(21), No. 2, February 2000, pp. 46-49. 0002
Introduction to the special section. Briefly describes the various techniques. BibRef

Phillips, P.J.[P. Jonathon], Martin, A.[Alvin], Wilson, C.L., Przybocki, M.[Mark],
An Introduction to Evaluating Biometric Systems,
Computer(21), No. 2, February 2000, pp. 56-63. 0002
Evaluation, Biometrics. And some sidebars on companies. BibRef

O'Toole, A.J.[Alice J.], Phillips, P.J.[P. Jonathon], Cheng, Y.[Yi], Ross, B.[Brendan], Wild, H.A.[Heather A.],
Face Recognition Algorithms as Models of Human Face Processing,
AFGR00(552-557).
IEEE DOI 0003
BibRef

Wayman, J.L.[James L.],
Federal Biometric Technology Legislation,
Computer(21), No. 2, February 2000, pp. 76-80. 0002
BibRef

Zhang, D.D.[David D.],
Automated Biometrics Technologies and Systems,
KluwerMay 2000, ISBN 0-7923-7856-3
WWW Link. Buy this book: Automated Biometrics: Technologies and Systems (The International Series on Asian Studies in Computer and Information Science) BibRef 0005

Bolle, R.M.[Ruud M.], Connell, J.H.[Jonathan H.], Ratha, N.K.[Nalini K.],
Biometric perils and patches,
PR(35), No. 12, December 2002, pp. 2727-2738.
WWW Link. 0209
BibRef

Ratha, N.K.[Nalini K.], Connell, J.H.[Jonathan H.], Bolle, R.M.[Ruud M.],
Biometrics break-ins and band-aids,
PRL(24), No. 13, September 2003, pp. 2105-2113.
WWW Link. 0307
BibRef

Bolle, R.M.[Ruud M.], Connell, J.H.[Jonathan H.], Pankanti, S.[Sharathchandra], Ratha, N.K.[Nalini K.], and Senior, A.W.[Andrew W.],
The Guide to Biometrics,
Springer2004. ISBN: 0-387-40089-3
HTML Version. Buy this book: Guide to Biometrics (Springer Professional Computing) BibRef 0400

Bolle, R.M.[Ruud M.], Ratha, N.K.[Nalini K.], Pankanti, S.[Sharath],
Error analysis of pattern recognition systems: The subsets bootstrap,
CVIU(93), No. 1, January 2004, pp. 1-33.
WWW Link. Evaluation, Biometrics. 0401
BibRef
Earlier:
An evaluation of error confidence interval estimation methods,
ICPR04(III: 103-106).
IEEE DOI 0409
BibRef
Earlier:
Confidence interval measurement in performance analysis of biometrics systems using the bootstrap,
EEMCV01(xx-yy). 0110
BibRef

Cheng, Y.[Yu], Ratha, N.K.[Nalini K.], Pankanti, S.[Sharath],
Outlier faces detector via efficient cohesive subgraph identification,
ICIP16(1659-1663)
IEEE DOI 1610
Not all faces are correctly labelled. BibRef

Zhang, D.D.[David D.], Wayman, J.L.[Jim L.], Jain, A.K.[Anil K.],
Introduction to Biometrics Special Issue,
PR(36), No. 2, February 2003, pp. 277.
WWW Link. 0211
BibRef

Woodward, J.D.[John D.], Orlans, N.M.[Nicholas M.], Higgins, P.T.[Peter T.],
Biometrics,
McGraw-Hill2003. ISBN 0-07-222227-1 Survey, Biometrics. A general review of the techniques and issues of biometrics. Buy this book: Biometrics BibRef 0300

Ortega-Garcia, J., Fierrez-Aguilar, J., Simon, D., Gonzalez, J., Faundez-Zanuy, M., Espinosa, V., Satue, A., Hernaez, I., Igarza, J.J., Vivaracho, C., Escudero, D., Moro, Q.I.,
MCYT baseline corpus: a bimodal biometric database,
VISP(150), No. 6, December 2003, pp. 395-401.
IEEE Abstract. 0402
Dataset, Biometrics. BibRef

Fabregas, J.[Joan], Faundez-Zanuy, M.[Marcos],
Biometric dispersion matcher,
PR(41), No. 11, November 2008, pp. 3412-3426.
WWW Link. 0808
Biometrics; Classification; Quadratic discriminant classifier; Feature selection; Fusion of classifiers BibRef

Fabregas, J.[Joan], Faundez-Zanuy, M.[Marcos],
Biometric dispersion matcher versus LDA,
PR(42), No. 9, September 2009, pp. 1816-1823.
Elsevier DOI 0905
Biometric dispersion matcher; Linear discriminant analysis; Biometrics; Face recognition; Hand-geometry recognition See also On-line signature verification system with failure to enrol management. BibRef

Fierrez-Aguilar, J.[Julian], Ortega-Garcia, J.[Javier], Toledano, D.T.[Doroteo Torre], Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.[Joaquin],
Biosec baseline corpus: A multimodal biometric database,
PR(40), No. 4, April 2007, pp. 1389-1392.
WWW Link. 0701
Dataset, Biometrics. Multimodal; Biometrics; Authentication; Verification; Database; Performance; Fingerprint; Iris; Face; Voice BibRef

Tang, X., Ma, S., O'Gorman, L., Tistarelli, M.,
Guest Editorial: Introduction to the Special Issue on Image- and Video-Based Biometrics,
CirSysVideo(14), No. 1, January 2004, pp. 1-3.
IEEE Abstract. 0402
BibRef
And:
Guest Editorial: Introduction to the Special Issue on Image- and Video-Based Biometrics: Part II,
CirSysVideo(14), No. 2, February 2004, pp. 146-148.
IEEE Abstract. 0403
BibRef

Jain, A.K., Ross, A., Prabhakar, S.,
An Introduction to Biometric Recognition,
CirSysVideo(14), No. 1, January 2004, pp. 4-20.
IEEE Abstract. 0402
Survey, Biometrics. BibRef

Snelick, R.[Robert], Uludag, U.[Umut], Mink, A.[Alan], Indovina, M.[Michael], Jain, A.K.[Anil K.],
Large-Scale Evaluation of Multimodal Biometric Authentication Using State-of-the-Art Systems,
PAMI(27), No. 3, March 2005, pp. 450-455.
IEEE Abstract. 0501
Evaluation, Biometrics. Performance of COTS using fingerprints and faces for 1000 individuals. Multimodal achieves higher accuracy than either alone. BibRef

Chang, K.I.[Kyong I.], Bowyer, K.W.[Kevin W.], Flynn, P.J.[Patrick J.],
An Evaluation of Multimodal 2D+3D Face Biometrics,
PAMI(27), No. 4, April 2005, pp. 619-624.
IEEE Abstract. 0501
Evaluation, Biometrics. BibRef
Earlier:
Multi-modal 2D and 3D biometrics for face recognition,
AMFG03(187-194).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
Conclusions: 2D and 3D are similar, combining them is better, multiple 2D images is better, and adding 3D to this is best. See also survey of approaches and challenges in 3D and multi-modal 3D-2D face recognition, A. BibRef

Bowyer, K.W.[Kevin W.], Chang, K.I.[Kyong I.], Flynn, P.J.[Patrick J.], Chen, X.[Xin],
Face Recognition Using 2-D, 3-D, and Infrared: Is Multimodal Better Than Multisample?,
PIEEE(94), No. 11, November 2006, pp. 2000-2012.
IEEE DOI 0611
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1, A3, A4:
Multi-biometrics using facial appearance, shape and temperature,
AFGR04(43-48).
WWW Link. 0411
BibRef

Zhang, D., Campbell, J.P., Maltoni, D., Bolle, R.M.,
Guest Editorial Special Issue on Biometric Systems,
SMC-C(35), No. 3, August 2005, pp. 273-275.
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Bengio, S.[Samy],
Database, protocols and tools for evaluating score-level fusion algorithms in biometric authentication,
PR(39), No. 2, February 2006, pp. 223-233.
WWW Link. 0512
Evaluation, Biometrics. Award, Pattern Recognition, Honorable Mention. BibRef
Earlier:
A Score-Level Fusion Benchmark Database for Biometric Authentication,
AVBPA05(1059).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Bengio, S.[Samy],
Improving Fusion with Margin-Derived Confidence in Biometric Authentication Tasks,
AVBPA05(474).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Tistarelli, M.[Massimo],
Customizing biometric authentication systems via discriminative score calibration,
CVPR12(2681-2686).
IEEE DOI 1208
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.], Rattani, A.[Ajita], Tistarelli, M.[Massimo],
Group-specific score normalization for biometric systems,
Biometrics10(38-45).
IEEE DOI 1006
Usually Only a few people cause errors in recognition. BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Bengio, S.[Samy],
A Novel Approach to Combining Client-Dependent and Confidence Information in Multimodal Biometrics,
AVBPA05(1120).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Martin, A.[Alvin], Bengio, S.[Samy],
Performance Generalization in Biometric Authentication Using Joint User-Specific and Sample Bootstraps,
PAMI(29), No. 3, March 2007, pp. 492-498.
IEEE DOI 0702
Two-step bootstrap method to deal with the main error sources: samples, demographic composition, number of users. Extension of: See also Error analysis of pattern recognition systems: The subsets bootstrap. BibRef

Poh, N., Kittler, J.V.,
A family of methods for quality-based multimodal biometric fusion using generative classifiers,
ICARCV08(1162-1167).
IEEE DOI 1109
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.],
On the Use of Log-Likelihood Ratio Based Model-Specific Score Normalisation in Biometric Authentication,
ICB07(614-624).
Springer DOI 0708
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.], Bourlai, T.[Thirimachos],
Quality-Based Score Normalization With Device Qualitative Information for Multimodal Biometric Fusion,
SMC-A(40), No. 3, May 2010, pp. 539-554.
IEEE DOI 1003
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.],
A Unified Framework for Biometric Expert Fusion Incorporating Quality Measures,
PAMI(34), No. 1, January 2012, pp. 3-18.
IEEE DOI 1112
BibRef
Earlier:
A Biometric Menagerie Index for Characterising Template/Model-Specific Variation,
ICB09(816-827).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef
Earlier:
Predicting Biometric Authentication System Performance Across Different Application Conditions: A Bootstrap Enhanced Parametric Approach,
ICB07(625-635).
Springer DOI 0708
BibRef

Chan, C.H.[Chi Ho], Tahir, M.A.[Muhammad Atif], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.], Pietikainen, M.[Matti],
Multiscale Local Phase Quantization for Robust Component-Based Face Recognition Using Kernel Fusion of Multiple Descriptors,
PAMI(35), No. 5, May 2013, pp. 1164-1177.
IEEE DOI 1304
BibRef

Chan, C.H.[Chi Ho], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.], Poh, N.[Norman], Ahonen, T.[Timo], Pietikainen, M.[Matti],
(Multiscale) Local Phase Quantisation histogram discriminant analysis with score normalisation for robust face recognition,
ObjectEvent09(633-640).
IEEE DOI 0910
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Kittler, J.V., Bourlai, T.[Thirimachos],
Improving Biometric Device Interoperability by Likelihood Ratio-based Quality Dependent Score Normalization,
BTAS07(1-5).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.], Smith, R.S.[Ray S.], Tena, J.R.[J. Rafael],
A Method for Estimating Authentication Performance over Time, with Applications to Face Biometrics,
CIARP07(360-369).
Springer DOI 0711
BibRef

Kiltter, J.V.[Josef V.], Poh, N.[Norman],
Multibiometrics for Identity Authentication: Issues, Benefits and Challenges,
BTAS08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Fatukasi, O.[Omolara], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.], Poh, N.[Norman],
Estimation of Missing Values in Multimodal Biometric Fusion,
BTAS08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef
Earlier:
Quality Controlled Multimodal Fusion of Biometric Experts,
CIARP07(881-890).
Springer DOI 0711
BibRef

Mitra, S.[Sushmita], Pedrycz, W.[Witold],
Special Issue on Bioinformatics,
PR(39), No. 12, December 2006, pp. 2265-2266.
WWW Link. 0609
BibRef

Prabhakar, S., Kittler, J.V., Maltoni, D.[Davide], O'Gorman, L., Tan, T.N.[Tie-Niu],
Introduction to the Special Issue on Biometrics: Progress and Directions,
PAMI(29), No. 4, April 2007, pp. 513-516.
IEEE DOI 0703
BibRef

Yang, J.[Jian], Zhang, D.[David], Yang, J.Y.[Jing-Yu], Niu, B.,
Globally Maximizing, Locally Minimizing: Unsupervised Discriminant Projection with Applications to Face and Palm Biometrics,
PAMI(29), No. 4, April 2007, pp. 650-664.
IEEE DOI 0703
unsupervised discriminant projection: UDP to reduce high-dimensional data. See also Comments on Globally Maximizing, Locally Minimizing: Unsupervised Discriminant Projection with Application to Face and Palm Biometrics. BibRef

Grother, P.J.[Patrick J.], Tabassi, E.,
Performance of Biometric Quality Measures,
PAMI(29), No. 4, April 2007, pp. 531-543.
IEEE DOI 0703
Evaluation, Biometrics. Document various evaluation methods. BibRef

Tabassi, E.[Elham],
Image Specific Error Rate: A Biometric Performance Metric,
ICPR10(1124-1127).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Hammoud, R.I., Abidi, B.R., Abidi, M.A., (Eds.)
Face Biometrics for Personal Identification: Multi-Sensory Multi-Modal Systems,
Springer2007, ISBN 978-1-84628-501-1.
WWW Link. Survey, Biometrics. Covers a range of biometric traits including facial geometry, 3D ear form, fingerprints, vein structure, voice, and gait, its main emphasis is placed on multi-sensory and multi-modal face biometrics algorithms and systems. Buy this book: Digital Document Processing: Major Directions and Recent Advances (Advances in Pattern Recognition) BibRef 0700

Vajaria, H., Islam, T., Mohanty, P.K.[Pranab K.], Sarkar, S.[Sudeep], Sankar, R., Kasturi, R.,
Evaluation and analysis of a face and voice outdoor multi-biometric system,
PRL(28), No. 12, 1 September 2007, pp. 1572-1580.
WWW Link. 0707
Outdoor biometric database; Multi-modal fusion; Voice recognition; Face recognition BibRef

Sarkar, S.[Sudeep], Mohanty, P.K.[Pranab K.],
Globally Linear Embedding of Biometric Scores: An Empirical Study,
BTAS08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Johnson, M.L.,
Biometrics and the threat to civil liberties,
Computer(37), No. 4, April 2004, pp. 90-92.
IEEE DOI 0404
BibRef

Boyer, K.W., Govindaraju, V., Ratha, N.K.,
Introduction to the Special Issue on Recent Advances in Biometric Systems,
SMC-B(37), No. 5, October 2007, pp. 1091-1095.
IEEE DOI 0711
BibRef

Ballard, L.[Lucas], Lopresti, D.[Daniel], Monrose, F.[Fabian],
Forgery Quality and Its Implications for Behavioral Biometric Security,
SMC-B(37), No. 5, October 2007, pp. 1107-1118.
IEEE DOI 0711
BibRef

Chen, J.[Jin], Lopresti, D.[Daniel], Monrose, F.[Fabian],
Toward Resisting Forgery Attacks via Pseudo-Signatures,
ICDAR09(51-55).
IEEE DOI 0907
BibRef

Chen, J.[Jin], Lopresti, D.[Daniel], Ballard, L.[Lucas], Monrose, F.[Fabian],
Pseudo-Signatures as a Biometric,
BTAS08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Toh, K.A.[Kar-Ann], Kim, J.H.[Jai-Hie], Lee, S.Y.[Sang-Youn],
Biometric scores fusion based on total error rate minimization,
PR(41), No. 3, March 2008, pp. 1066-1082.
WWW Link. 0711
Multimodal biometrics; Decision fusion; Equal error rate; Pattern classification; Machine learning BibRef

Toh, K.A.[Kar-Ann], Kim, Y.S.[Young-Sung], Lee, S.Y.[Sang-Youn], Kim, J.H.[Jai-Hie],
Fusion of visual and infra-red face scores by weighted power series,
PRL(29), No. 5, 1 April 2008, pp. 603-615.
WWW Link. 0802
Biometrics fusion; Face verification; Pattern classification; Classification error rate BibRef

Toh, K.A.[Kar-Ann],
Error-Rate Based Biometrics Fusion,
ICB07(191-200).
Springer DOI 0708
BibRef

Yanushkevich, S.N.[Svetlana N], Gavrilova, M.L.[Marina L.], Wang, P.S.P.[Patrick S.P.], Srihari, S.N.[Sargur N.],
Image Pattern Recognition: Synthesis and Analysis in biometrics,
World ScientificMay, 2007. ISBN: 978-981-256-908-0 Survey, Biometrics. Buy this book: Image Pattern Recognition: Synthesis and Analysis in Biometrics (Series in Machine Perception & Artifical Intelligence) (Series in Machine Perception & Artifical Intelligence) BibRef 0705

Jain, A.K.[Anil K.], Flynn, P.J.[Patrick J.], Ross, A.A.[Arun A.],
Handbook of Biometrics,
Springer-VerlagNew York, 2008 ISBN: 978-0-387-71040-2
WWW Link. Survey, Biometrics. Buy this book: Handbook of Biometrics BibRef 0800

Chellappa, R., Phillips, J., Reynolds, D.,
Special Issue on Biometrics: Algorithms and Applications,
PIEEE(94), No. 11, November 2006, pp. 1912-1914.
IEEE DOI 0611
BibRef

Deng, W.H.[Wei-Hong], Hu, J.[Jiani], Guo, J.[Jun], Zhang, H.G.[Hong-Gang], Zhang, C.[Chuang],
Comments on 'Globally Maximizing, Locally Minimizing: Unsupervised Discriminant Projection with Application to Face and Palm Biometrics',
PAMI(30), No. 8, August 2008, pp. 1503-1504.
IEEE DOI 0806
See also Globally Maximizing, Locally Minimizing: Unsupervised Discriminant Projection with Applications to Face and Palm Biometrics. BibRef

Wayman, J.L.[James L.],
Fundamentals Of Biometric Authentication Technologies,
IJIG(1), No. 1, January 2001, pp. 93-113. 0101
BibRef

Hong, J.H.[Jin-Hyuk], Yun, E.K.[Eun-Kyung], Cho, S.B.[Sung-Bae],
A Review Of Performance Evaluation For Biometrics Systems,
IJIG(5), No. 3, July 2005, pp. 501-536. 0507
BibRef

Vildjiounaite, E.[Elena], Kyllonen, V.[Vesa], Ailisto, H.[Heikki],
Empirical evaluation of combining unobtrusiveness and security requirements in multimodal biometric systems,
IVC(27), No. 3, February 2009, pp. 279-292.
Elsevier DOI 0804
Biometrics; Multimodal fusion; Cascade BibRef

Tistarelli, M.[Massimo], Bigun, J.[Josef],
Image and vision computing journal special issue on multimodal biometrics,
IVC(27), No. 3, February 2009, pp. 221.
Elsevier DOI 0804
BibRef

Bhatnagar, J.[Jay], Kumar, A.[Ajay],
On estimating performance indices for biometric identification,
PR(42), No. 9, September 2009, pp. 1803-1815.
Elsevier DOI 0905
BibRef
Earlier:
On Some Performance Indices for Biometric Identification System,
ICB07(1043-1056).
Springer DOI 0708
BibRef
Earlier:
Estimating Sample Size Requirements for Reliable Personal Authentication Using User-Specific Samples,
Biometrics06(36).
IEEE DOI 0609
Biometrics performance evaluation; Constrained capacity; Palmprint; Hand geometry BibRef

Kumar, A.[Ajay], Shekhar, S.[Sumit],
Palmprint recognition using rank level fusion,
ICIP10(3121-3124).
IEEE DOI 1009
BibRef

Bhatnagar, J.[Jay], Kumar, A.[Ajay], Saggar, N.[Nipun],
A Novel Approach to Improve Biometric Recognition Using Rank Level Fusion,
Biometrics07(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0706
BibRef

Tsai, P.S.[Poh-Siang], Cao, L.B.[Long-Bing], Hintz, T.[Tom], Jan, T.[Tony],
A bi-modal face recognition framework integrating facial expression with facial appearance,
PRL(30), No. 12, 1 September 2009, pp. 1096-1109.
Elsevier DOI 0909
Biometrics; Multimodal biometrics; Fusion techniques; Facial appearance; Facial expression; Human Computer Interface (HCI) BibRef

Tsai, P.S.[Poh-Siang], Tran, T.P.[Tich Phuoc], Hintz, T.[Tom], Jan, T.[Tony],
An evaluation of bi-modal facial appearance+facial expression face biometrics,
ICPR08(1-5).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Galbally, J.[Javier], McCool, C.[Chris], Fierrez, J.[Julian], Marcel, S.[Sebastien], Ortega-Garcia, J.[Javier],
On the vulnerability of face verification systems to hill-climbing attacks,
PR(43), No. 3, March 2010, pp. 1027-1038.
Elsevier DOI 1001
Biometrics; Face recognition; Security; Vulnerabilities; Hill-climbing BibRef

Yager, N.[Neil], Dunstone, T.[Ted],
The Biometric Menagerie,
PAMI(32), No. 2, February 2010, pp. 220-230.
IEEE DOI 1001
Different problems for different users. Relationship between users genuine and imposter matches. BibRef

Vetter, R.[Ron],
Authentication by Biometric Verification,
Computer(43), No. 2, February 2010, pp. 28-29.
IEEE DOI 1003
Survey, Biometrics. BibRef

Ricanek, Jr., K.[Karl], Savvides, M.[Marios], Woodard, D.L.[Damon L.], Dozier, G.[Gerry],
Unconstrained Biometric Identification: Emerging Technologies,
Computer(43), No. 2, February 2010, pp. 56-62.
IEEE DOI 1003
Survey, Biometrics. BibRef

Kim, Y.S.[Young-Sung], Teoh, A.B.J.[Andrew Beng Jin], Toh, K.A.[Kar-Ann],
A performance driven methodology for cancelable face templates generation,
PR(43), No. 7, July 2010, pp. 2544-2559.
Elsevier DOI 1003
Cancelable biometrics; Biometric recognition; Face recognition; Biometric security BibRef

Lim, M.H.[Meng-Hui], Teoh, A.B.J.[Andrew Beng Jin], Toh, K.A.[Kar-Ann],
An efficient dynamic reliability-dependent bit allocation for biometric discretization,
PR(45), No. 5, May 2012, pp. 1960-1971.
Elsevier DOI 1201
Reliability; Dynamic discretization; Bit allocation; Quantization; Biometric BibRef

Lim, M.H.[Meng-Hui], Teoh, A.B.J.[Andrew Beng Jin],
A Novel Encoding Scheme for Effective Biometric Discretization: Linearly Separable Subcode,
PAMI(35), No. 2, February 2013, pp. 300-313.
IEEE DOI 1301
BibRef

Kim, Y.S.[Young-Sung], Toh, K.A.[Kar-Ann],
A Method to Enhance Face Biometric Security,
BTAS07(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Ortega-Garcia, J.[Javier], Fierrez, J.[Julian], Alonso-Fernandez, F.[Fernando], Galbally, J.[Javier], Freire, M.R.[Manuel R.], Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.[Joaquin], Garcia-Mateo, C.[Carmen], Alba-Castro, J.L.[Jose-Luis], Gonzalez-Agulla, E.[Elisardo], Otero-Muras, E.[Enrique], Garcia-Salicetti, S.[Sonia], Allano, L.[Lorene], Ly-Van, B.[Bao], Dorizzi, B.[Bernadette], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.], Bourlai, T.[Thirimachos], Poh, N.[Norman], Deravi, F.[Farzin], Ng, M.N.R.[Ming N. R.], Fairhurst, M.C.[Michael C.], Hennebert, J.[Jean], Humm, A.[Andreas], Tistarelli, M.[Massimo], Brodo, L.[Linda], Richiardi, J.[Jonas], Drygajlo, A.[Andrezj], Ganster, H.[Harald], Sukno, F.M.[Federico M.], Pavani, S.K.[Sri-Kaushik], Frangi, A.[Alejandro], Akarun, L.[Lale], Savran, A.[Arman],
The Multiscenario Multienvironment BioSecure Multimodal Database (BMDB),
PAMI(32), No. 6, June 2010, pp. 1097-1111.
IEEE DOI 1004
Dataset, Biometrics. Withing the Europens BioSecure framework. 600 individuals. Acquired over internet, in office, and indoor/outdoor with portable hardware. Audio/Video data, signature, fingerprint. BibRef

Wang, Y.J.[Yong-Jin], Hatzinakos, D.[Dimitrios],
On Random Transformations for Changeable Face Verification,
SMC-B(41), No. 3, June 2011, pp. 840-854.
IEEE DOI 1106
BibRef
Earlier:
Cancelable Face Recognition Using Random Multiplicative Transform,
ICPR10(1261-1264).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Agrafioti, F., Bui, F.M., Hatzinakos, D.,
Medical biometrics: The perils of ignoring time dependency,
BTAS09(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0909
BibRef

da Costa Abreu, M.C., Fairhurst, M.C.,
Enhancing Identity Prediction Using a Novel Approach to Combining Hard- and Soft-Biometric Information,
SMC-C(41), No. 5, September 2011, pp. 599-607.
IEEE DOI 1109
BibRef

Fairhurst, M.C.,
Document Identity, Authentication and Ownership: The Future of Biometric Verification,
ICDAR03(1108-1116).
IEEE DOI 0311
BibRef

Ricanek, Jr., K.[Karl], Barbour, B.[Benjamin],
What Are Soft Biometrics and How Can They Be Used?,
Computer(44), No. 9, September 2011, pp. 106-108.
IEEE DOI 1109
Brief survey. BibRef

Ricanek Jr., K.[Karl], Boehnen, C.[Chris],
Facial Analytics: From Big Data to Law Enforcement,
Computer(45), No. 9, September 2012, pp. 95-97.
IEEE DOI 1209
Survey, Face Recognition. Review of facial recognition systems and their use. BibRef

Proença, H.[Hugo], Du, E.Y.Z.[Eliza Ying-Zi], Scharcanski, J.[Jacob],
Introduction to the special issue on unconstrained biometrics: Advances and trends,
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Suhr, J.K.[Jae Kyu], Eum, S.[Sungmin], Jung, H.G.[Ho Gi], Li, G.[Gen], Kim, G.[Gahyun], Kim, J.H.[Jai-Hie],
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PR(45), No. 5, May 2012, pp. 1899-1914.
Elsevier DOI 1201
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SpringerNew-York, 2012. ISBN: 978-3-642-22406-5
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Elsevier DOI 1204
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IVC(32), No. 1, 2014, pp. 74-85.
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Islam, S.M.S.[Syed M.S.], Bennamoun, M.[Mohammed], Owens, R.A.[Robyn A.], Davies, R.[Rowan],
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Drosou, A., Tzovaras, D., Moustakas, K., Petrou, M.,
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IEEE DOI 1212
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Liu-Jimenez, J., Sanchez-Reillo, R., Mengibar-Pozo, L., Miguel-Hurtado, O.,
Optimisation of biometric ID tokens by using hardware/software co-design,
IET-Bio(1), No. 3, September 2012, pp. 168-177.
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Poh, N., Rattani, A., Roli, F.,
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IET-Bio(1), No. 4, December 2012, pp. 179-187.
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Poursaberi, A., Yanushkevich, S., Gavrilova, M.L., Shmerko, V.P., Wang, P.S.P.,
Situational Awareness through Biometrics,
Computer(46), No. 5, 2013, pp. 102-104.
IEEE DOI biometrics; facial biometric data; security personnel; 1307
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Poursaberi, A., Vana, J., Mracek, S., Dvora, R., Yanushkevich, S.N., Drahansky, M., Shmerko, V.P., Gavrilova, M.L.[Marina L.],
Facial biometrics for situational awareness systems,
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Faddis, K.N., Matey, J.R., Stracener, J.,
Improving tactical biometric systems through the application of systems engineering,
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Faddis, K.N., Matey, J.R., Maxey, J.R., Stracener, J.T.,
Performance assessments of iris recognition in tactical biometric devices,
IET-Bio(2), No. 3, 2013, pp. -.
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Wang, R.[Rong], Bhanu, B.[Bir], Thakoor, N.S.[Ninad S.],
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PR(46), No. 12, 2013, pp. 3533-3547.
Elsevier DOI 1308
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Rane, S., Wang, Y., Draper, S., Ishwar, P.,
Secure Biometrics: Concepts, Authentication Architectures, and Challenges,
SPMag(30), No. 5, 2013, pp. 51-64.
IEEE DOI 1309
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Wayman, J.L., Possolo, A., Mansfield, A.J.,
Modern statistical and philosophical framework for uncertainty assessment in biometric performance testing,
IET-Bio(2), No. 3, 2013, pp. -.
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Ho, C.C.[Chiung Ching], Ng, H.[Hu], Tan, W.H.[Wooi-Haw], Ng, K.W.[Kok-Why], Tong, H.L.[Hau-Lee], Yap, T.T.V.[Timothy Tzen-Vun], Chong, P.F.[Pei-Fen], Eswaran, C., Abdullah, J.[Junaidi],
MMU GASPFA: A COTS multimodal biometric database,
PRL(34), No. 15, 2013, pp. 2043-2050.
Elsevier DOI 1309
GASPFA BibRef

Ricanek, K.[Karl],
The Next Biometric Challenge: Medical Alterations,
Computer(46), No. 9, September 2013, pp. 94-96.
IEEE DOI 1309
Biomedical image processing BibRef

Ricanek, K.[Karl],
Beyond Recognition: The Promise of Biometric Analytics,
Computer(47), No. 9, September 2014, pp. 87-89.
IEEE DOI 1410
biometrics (access control) BibRef

Hendrikse, A.[Anne], Veldhuis, R.N.J.[Raymond N.J.], Spreeuwers, L.J.[Luuk J.],
Likelihood-Ratio-Based Verification in High-Dimensional Spaces,
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IEEE DOI 1312
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Hendrikse, A.[Anne], Veldhuis, R.N.J.[Raymond N.J.], Spreeuwers, L.J.[Luuk J.], Bazen, A.M.[Asker M.],
Analysis of Eigenvalue Correction Applied to Biometrics,
ICB09(189-198).
Springer DOI 0906
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Liu, Y.[Yishu], Yang, L.H.[Li-Hua], Suen, C.Y.,
The Effect of Correlation and Performances of Base-Experts on Score Fusion,
SMCS(44), No. 4, April 2014, pp. 510-517.
IEEE DOI 1404
biometrics (access control) BibRef

Unar, J.A., Seng, W.C.[Woo Chaw], Abbasi, A.[Almas],
A review of biometric technology along with trends and prospects,
PR(47), No. 8, 2014, pp. 2673-2688.
Elsevier DOI 1405
Survey, Biometrics. Award, Pattern Recognition, Honorable Mention. Biometrics BibRef

Wayman, J., Mciver, R., Waggett, P., Clarke, S., Mizoguchi, M., Busch, C., Delvaux, N., Zudenkov, A.,
Vocabulary harmonisation for biometrics: The development of ISO/IEC 2382 Part 37,
IET-Bio(3), No. 1, March 2014, pp. 1-8.
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Reid, D.A., Nixon, M.S., Stevenage, S.V.,
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IEEE DOI 1406
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Bharadwaj, S.[Samarth], Vatsa, M.[Mayank], Singh, R.[Richa],
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Probability Models for Open Set Recognition,
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IEEE DOI 1410
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ECCV14(III: 393-409).
Springer DOI 1408
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Jain, L.P.[Lalit P.], Wilber, M.J.[Michael J.], Boult, T.E.[Terrance E.],
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Biometrics13(76-83)
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Wilber, M.J.[Michael J.], Scheirer, W.J.[Walter J.], Boult, T.E.[Terrance E.],
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IEEE DOI 1207
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Paul, P.P.[Padma Polash], Gavrilova, M.L.[Marina L.], Klimenko, S.[Stanislav],
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IEEE DOI 1411
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Elsevier DOI 1412
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IEEE DOI 1502
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IEEE DOI 1506
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Springer DOI 1601
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Eastwood, S.C., Shmerko, V.P., Yanushkevich, S.N., Drahansky, M., Gorodnichy, D.O.,
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Elsevier DOI 1606
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Elsevier DOI 1608
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Dang, T.K., Truong, Q.C., Le, T.T.B.[T. T. B.], Truong, H.,
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Elsevier DOI 1703
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ICIP13(2792-2796)
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Springer DOI 1106
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Schmid, N.A.[Natalia A.], Nicolo, F.[Francesco],
A method for selecting and ranking quality metrics for optimization of biometric recognition systems,
Biometrics09(126-133).
IEEE DOI 0906
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Li, S.Z.[Stan Z.], Lei, Z.[Zhen], Ao, M.[Meng],
The HFB Face Database for Heterogeneous Face Biometrics research,
OTCBVS09(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0906
Dataste, Faces. BibRef

Lai, L.F.[Li-Feng], Ho, S.W.[Siu-Wai], Poor, H.V.[H. Vincent],
An Information Theoretic Framework for Biometric Security Systems,
ICB09(879-888).
Springer DOI 0906
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Borgen, H.[Halvor], Bours, P.[Patrick], Wolthusen, S.D.[Stephen D.],
Simulating the Influences of Aging and Ocular Disease on Biometric Recognition Performance,
ICB09(857-867).
Springer DOI 0906
How to biometric signatures change over time. BibRef

Yi, D.[Dong], Liao, S.C.[Sheng-Cai], Lei, Z.[Zhen], Sang, J.[Jitao], Li, S.Z.[Stan Z.],
Partial Face Matching between Near Infrared and Visual Images in MBGC Portal Challenge,
ICB09(733-742).
Springer DOI 0906
MBGC: multi-biometric grand challenge BibRef

Kwang, G.[Geraldine], Yap, R.H.C.[Roland H. C.], Sim, T.[Terence], Ramnath, R.[Rajiv],
An Usability Study of Continuous Biometrics Authentication,
ICB09(828-837).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef

Sang, J.[Jitao], Lei, Z.[Zhen], Li, S.Z.[Stan Z.],
Face Image Quality Evaluation for ISO/IEC Standards 19794-5 and 29794-5,
ICB09(229-238).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef

Stokkenes, M.[Martin], Ramachandra, R.[Raghavendra], Raja, K.B.[Kiran B.], Sigaard, M.K.[Morten K.], Gomez-Barrero, M.[Marta], Busch, C.[Christoph],
Multi-biometric Template Protection on Smartphones: An Approach Based on Binarized Statistical Features and Bloom Filters,
CIARP16(385-392).
Springer DOI 1703
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A2, A4, A3, A5, A6:
Multi-biometric template protection: A security analysis of binarized statistical features for bloom filters on smartphones,
IPTA16(1-6)
IEEE DOI 1703
biometrics (access control) BibRef

Zhou, X.B.[Xue-Bing], Wolthusen, S.D.[Stephen D.], Busch, C.[Christoph], Kuijper, A.[Arjan],
A Security Analysis of Biometric Template Protection Schemes,
ICIAR09(429-438).
Springer DOI 0907
BibRef

Phillips, P.J.[P. Jonathon], Flynn, P.J.[Patrick J.], Beveridge, J.R.[J. Ross], Scruggs, W.T.[W. Todd], O'Toole, A.J.[Alice J.], Bolme, D.S.[David S.], Bowyer, K.W.[Kevin W.], Draper, B.A.[Bruce A.], Givens, G.H.[Geof H.], Lui, Y.M.[Yui Man], Sahibzada, H.[Hassan], Scallan, J.A.[Joseph A.], Weimer, S.[Samuel],
Overview of the Multiple Biometrics Grand Challenge,
ICB09(705-714).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef

Storer, M.[Markus], Urschler, M.[Martin], Bischof, H.[Horst],
Occlusion detection for ICAO compliant facial photographs,
Biometrics10(122-129).
IEEE DOI 1006
BibRef

Storer, M.[Markus], Urschler, M.[Martin], Bischof, H.[Horst], Birchbauer, J.A.[Josef A.],
Classifier fusion for robust ICAO compliant face analysis,
FG08(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Carls, J.W.[John W.], Raines, R.A.[Richard A.], Grimaila, M.[Michael], Rogers, S.K.[Steven K.],
Biometric enhancements: Template aging error score analysis,
FG08(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

He, Q.[Qian], Sun, Z.A.[Zhen-An], Tan, T.N.[Tie-Niu], Zou, Y.[Yong],
A hierarchical model for the evaluation of biometric sample quality,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Gamboa, H.[Hugo], Fred, A.L.N.[Ana L.N.],
Uncertainty based classification fusion: A soft-biometrics test case,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef

Bruegge, R.W.V.[Richard W. Vorder],
The BCOE and the Future of Biometrics at the FBI,
BTAS08(1-3).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

King, M.C.[Michael C.],
Exploring the Science of Biometrics under Relaxed Constraints,
BTAS08(1-1).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Spaun, N.A.[Nicole A.],
Facial Comparisons by Subject Matter Experts: Their Role in Biometrics and Their Training,
ICB09(161-168).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef

Spaun, N.A.[Nicole A.], Bruegge, R.W.V.[Richard W. Vorder],
Forensic Identification of People from Images and Video,
BTAS08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Spaun, N.A.[Nicole A.],
Forensic Biometrics from Images and Video at the Federal Bureau of Investigation,
BTAS07(1-3).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Lee, Y.Y.[Yoo-Young], Podio, F.L., Jerde, M.,
Conformance Test Suite for CBEFF Biometric Information Records,
BTAS07(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0709
Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework. BibRef

Theofanos, M.F.[Mary F.], Stanton, B.[Brian], Choong, Y.Y.[Yee-Yin], Micheals, R.[Ross],
Usability testing of an overlay to improve face capture,
BTAS09(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0909
BibRef

Theofanos, M.F.[Mary F.], Stanton, B.[Brian], Sheppard, C.[Charles], Micheals, R.[Ross],
Usability Testing of Face Image Capture for US Ports of Entry,
BTAS08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Theofanos, M.F.[Mary F.], Stanton, B.[Brian], Micheals, R.[Ross], Orandi, S.,
Biometric Systematic Uncertainty and the User,
BTAS07(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Brady, K.[Kevin],
MIT Lincoln Laboratory Multimodal Person Identification System in the CLEAR 2007 Evaluation,
MTPH07(xx-yy).
Springer DOI 0705
BibRef

Sutcu, Y.[Yagiz], Rane, S.[Shantanu], Yedidia, J.S.[Jonathan S.], Draper, S.C.[Stark C.], Vetro, A.[Anthony],
Feature transformation of biometric templates for secure biometric systems based on error correcting codes,
Biometrics08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0806
BibRef

Chen, C.[Chun], Veldhuis, R.N.J.[Raymond N.J.],
Binary Biometric Representation through Pairwise Polar Quantization,
ICB09(72-81).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef

Chen, C., Veldhuis, R.N.J., Kevenaar, T.A.M., Akkermans, A.H.M.,
Biometric binary string generation with detection rate optimized bit allocation,
Biometrics08(1-7).
IEEE DOI 0806
BibRef
Earlier:
Multi-Bits Biometric String Generation based on the Likelihood Ratio,
BTAS07(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Scheirer, W.J., Bendale, A., Boult, T.E.,
Predicting biometric facial recognition failure with similarity surfaces and support vector machines,
Biometrics08(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0806
BibRef

Scheirer, W.J., Boult, T.E.,
A Fusion-Based Approach to Enhancing Multi-Modal Biometric Recognition System Failure Prediction and Overall Performance,
BTAS08(1-7).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Buhan, I.[Ileana], Doumen, J.[Jeroen], Hartel, P.[Pieter], Veldhuis, R.N.J.[Raymond N.J.],
Feeling Is Believing: A Secure Template Exchange Protocol,
ICB07(897-906).
Springer DOI 0708
BibRef

Buhan, I.[Ileana], Bazen, A.M.[Asker M.], Hartel, P.[Pieter], Veldhuis, R.N.J.[Raymond N.J.],
A False Rejection Oriented Threat Model for the Design of Biometric Authentication Systems,
ICB06(728-736).
Springer DOI 0601
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Micheals, R.J.[Ross J.], Boult, T.E.[Terrance E.],
Improving Variance Estimation in Biometric Systems,
Biometrics07(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0706
BibRef

Lee, H.G.[Hyung-Gu], Lee, C.H.[Chul-Han], Choi, J.Y.[Jeung-Yoon], Kim, J.S.[Jong-Sun], Kim, J.H.[Jai-Hie],
Changeable Face Representations Suitable for Human Recognition,
ICB07(557-565).
Springer DOI 0708
BibRef

Jeong, M.Y.[Min-Yi], Choi, J.Y.[Jeung-Yoon], Kim, J.H.[Jai-Hie],
Using Genetic Algorithms to Improve Matching Performance of Changeable biometrics from Combining PCA and ICA Methods,
Biometrics07(1-5).
IEEE DOI 0706
BibRef

Samangooei, S.[Sina], Guo, B.F.[Bao-Feng], Nixon, M.S.[Mark S.],
The Use of Semantic Human Description as a Soft Biometric,
BTAS08(1-7).
IEEE DOI 0809
BibRef

Veres, G.V.[Galina V.], Nixon, M.S.[Mark S.], Carter, J.N.[John N.],
Is Enough Enough? What Is Sufficiency in Biometric Data?,
ICIAR06(II: 262-273).
Springer DOI 0610
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Nagar, A.[Abhishek], Chaudhury, S.[Santanu],
Biometrics based Asymmetric Cryptosystem Design Using Modified Fuzzy Vault Scheme,
ICPR06(IV: 537-540).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Woodard, D.L.[Damon L.], Faltemier, T.C.[Timothy C.], Yan, P.[Ping], Flynn, P.J.[Patrick J.], Bowyer, K.W.[Kevin W.],
A Comparison of 3D Biometric Modalities,
Biometrics06(57).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Aggarwal, G.[Gaurav], Ratha, N.K.[Nalini K.], Bolle, R.M.[Ruud M.],
Biometric Verification: Looking Beyond Raw Similarity Scores,
Biometrics06(31).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Wittman, M., Davis, P., Flynn, P.J.,
Empirical Studies of the Existence of the Biometric Menagerie in the FRGC 2.0 Color Image Corpus,
Biometrics06(33).
IEEE DOI 0609
BibRef

Bazakos, M.E., Ma, Y.Q.[Yun-Qian], Johnson, A.H.,
Fast access control technology solutions (FACTS),
AVSBS05(312-317).
IEEE DOI 0602
BibRef

Beattie, M.[Michael], Vijaya Kumar, B.V.K., Lucey, S.[Simon], Tonguz, O.K.[Ozan K.],
Automatic Configuration for a Biometrics-Based Physical Access Control System,
IWBRS05(241).
Springer DOI 0601
BibRef

Gibbons, M.[Michael], Yoon, S.S.[Sung-Soo], Cha, S.H.[Sung-Hyuk], Tappert, C.[Charles],
Evaluation of Biometric Identification in Open Systems,
AVBPA05(823).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Mansukhani, P.[Praveer], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Exploring Similarity Measures for Biometric Databases,
AVBPA05(832).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Adler, A.[Andy],
Vulnerabilities in Biometric Encryption Systems,
AVBPA05(1100).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Phillips, P.J.[P. Jonathon], Flynn, P.J.[Patrick J.], Scruggs, W.T.[W. Todd], Bowyer, K.W.[Kevin W.], Worek, W.[William],
Preliminary Face Recognition Grand Challenge Results,
FGR06(15-24).
IEEE DOI 0604
BibRef

Phillips, P.J.[P. Jonathon], Flynn, P.J.[Patrick J.], Scruggs, W.T.[W. Todd], Bowyer, K.W.[Kevin W.], Chang, J.[Jin], Hoffman, K.[Kevin], Marques, J.[Joe], Min, J.[Jaesik], Worek, W.[William],
Overview of the Face Recognition Grand Challenge,
CVPR05(I: 947-954).
IEEE DOI 0507
BibRef

Jain, A.K.[Anil K.],
Biometric Recognition: How Do I Know Who You Are?,
SCIA05(1-5).
Springer DOI 0506
BibRef
And: CIAP05(19-26).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Jain, A.K., Pankanti, S., Prabhakar, S., Hong, L.[Lin], Ross, A.,
Biometrics: A grand challenge,
ICPR04(II: 935-942).
IEEE DOI 0409
BibRef

Tuyls, P.[Pim], Goseling, J.[Jasper],
Capacity and Examples of Template-Protecting Biometric Authentication Systems,
BioAW04(158-170).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef

Baltatu, M.[Madalina], d'Alessandro, R.[Rosalia], d'Amico, R.[Roberta],
Toward Ubiquitous Acceptance of Biometric Authentication: Template Protection Techniques,
BioAW04(171-183).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef

Phillips, P.J.,
Human identification technical challenges,
ICIP02(I: 49-52).
IEEE DOI 0210
BibRef

Phillips, P.J.,
Progress in human ID,
AVSBS03(1-1).
WWW Link. 0310
BibRef

Jain, A.K.[Anil K.],
Who's Who? Challenges in Biometric Authentication,
DAGM03(33-35).
Springer DOI 0310
BibRef

Wayman, J.L.,
Digital signal processing in biometric identification: a review,
ICIP02(I: 37-40).
IEEE DOI 0210
BibRef

Wheeler, G.V.[Gavin V.], Courtney, P.[Patrick], Cootes, T.F.[Tim F.], Taylor, C.J.[Chris J.],
Performance assessment of a face verification based access control system,
AFGR00(221-226).
IEEE DOI 0003
BibRef

Messer, K., Matas, J., Kittler, J.V., Luettin, J., Maitre, G.,
XM2VTSDB: The Extended M2VTS Database,
AVBPA99(xx-yy).
WWW Link. Dataset, Biometrics. 4 versions of 295 subjects. BibRef 9900

Thimm, G., Ben-Yacoub, S., Luettin, J.,
Evaluating the Complexity of Databases for Person Identification and Verification,
CAIP99(49-56).
Springer DOI 9909
BibRef

Chapter on Face Recognition, Detection, Tracking, Gesture Recognition, Fingerprints, Biometrics continues in
Keystroke Dynamics Biometrics .


Last update:Aug 9, 2017 at 18:37:22