21.5.2 Biometrics, Multi-Modal Systems, Multibiometrics, Combined Face and Other Features, Fusion

Chapter Contents (Back)
Biometrics. Multibiometrics. Sensor Fusion.

Duc, B., Bigun, E.S., Bigün, J., Maitre, G., Fischer, S.,
Fusion of Audio and Video Information for Multi Modal Person Authentication,
PRL(18), No. 9, September 1997, pp. 835-843. 9801
BibRef

Kittler, J.V., Matas, J., Jonsson, K., Sanchez, M.U.R.,
Combining Evidence in Personal Identity Verification Systems,
PRL(18), No. 9, September 1997, pp. 845-852. 9801
BibRef

Hong, L.[Lin], Jain, A.K.[Anil K.],
Integrating Faces and Fingerprints for Personal Identification,
PAMI(20), No. 12, December 1998, pp. 1295-1307.
IEEE DOI BibRef 9812

Jain, A.K., Hong, L., Kulkarni, Y.,
A Multimodal Biometric System Using Fingerprint, Face and Speech,
AVBPA99(xx-yy). BibRef 9900

Jain, A.K.[Anil K.], Hong, L.[Lin], Kulkarni, Y.[Yatin],
F2ID: A Personal Identification System Using Faces and Fingerprints,
ICPR98(Vol II: 1373-1375).
IEEE DOI 9808
BibRef

Chatzis, V., Borse, A.G., Pitas, I.,
Multimodal Decision-Level Fusion for Person Authentication,
SMC-A(29), No. 6, November 1999, pp. 674.
IEEE Top Reference. BibRef 9911

Ben-Yacoub, S.[Souheil], Abdeljaoued, Y., Mayoraz, E.,
Fusion of Face and Speech Data for Person Identity Verification,
TNN(10), No. 5, May 1999, pp. 1065-1074. BibRef 9905

Ben-Yacoub, S.[Souheil], Luettin, J.[Juergen], Jonsson, K.[Kenneth], Matas, J.[Jiri], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.],
Audio-Visual Person Verification,
CVPR99(I: 580-585).
IEEE DOI Multi-modal, both sound and image. BibRef 9900

Ben-Yacoub, S.,
Multi-Modal Data Fusion for Person Authentication Using SVM,
AVBPA99(xx-yy). BibRef 9900

Sanderson, C.[Conrad], Paliwal, K.K.[Kuldip K.],
Noise compensation in a person verification system using face and multiple speech features,
PR(36), No. 2, February 2003, pp. 293-302.
WWW Link. 0211
See also Features for robust face-based identity verification. BibRef

Sanderson, C.[Conrad], Paliwal, K.K.[Kuldip K.],
Fast features for face authentication under illumination direction changes,
PRL(24), No. 14, October 2003, pp. 2409-2419.
WWW Link. 0307
BibRef
Earlier:
Likelihood normalization for face authentication in variable recording conditions,
ICIP02(I: 301-304).
IEEE DOI 0210
BibRef

Chang, K.I.[Kyong I.], Bowyer, K.W.[Kevin W.], Sarkar, S.[Sudeep], Victor, B.[Barnabas],
Comparison and combination of ear and face images in appearance-based biometrics,
PAMI(25), No. 9, September 2003, pp. 1160-1165.
IEEE Abstract. 0309
Previous work with PCA approach showed worse results for ear biometrics. New result shows minor differences. Using both results in a larger improvement (from approx 70% to 90%). ( See also Ear Biometrics. See also Force Field Energy Functionals for Image Feature Extraction. ). BibRef

Victor, B., Bowyer, K.W., Sarkar, S.,
An evaluation of face and ear biometrics,
ICPR02(I: 429-432).
IEEE DOI 0211
BibRef

Ribaric, S., Ribaric, D., Pavesic, N.,
Multimodal biometric user-identification system for network-based applications,
VISP(150), No. 6, December 2003, pp. 409-416.
IEEE Abstract. 0402
BibRef

Ross, A.A.[Arun A.], Jain, A.K.[Anil K.],
Information Fusion in Biometrics,
PRL(24), No. 13, September 2003, pp. 2115-2125.
WWW Link. 0307
Fusion. BibRef
Earlier: Add A3: Qian, J.Z.[Jian-Zhong], AVBPA01(354).
Springer DOI 0310
BibRef

Jain, A.K.[Anil K.], Nandakumar, K.[Karthik], Ross, A.A.[Arun A.],
Score normalization in multimodal biometric systems,
PR(38), No. 12, December 2005, pp. 2270-2285.
WWW Link. Award, Pattern Recognition, Best Paper. 0510
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1, A3:
Fusion in Multibiometric Identification Systems: What about the Missing Data?,
ICB09(743-752).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef

Ding, Y.H.[Yao-Hui], Ross, A.A.[Arun A.],
A comparison of imputation methods for handling missing scores in biometric fusion,
PR(45), No. 3, March 2012, pp. 919-933.
Elsevier DOI 1111
Missing data; Imputation; Multibiometric fusion BibRef

Toh, K.A.[Kar-Ann], Yau, W.Y.[Wei-Yun], Jiang, X.D.[Xu-Dong],
A Reduced Multivariate Polynomial Model for Multimodal Biometrics and Classifiers Fusion,
CirSysVideo(14), No. 2, February 2004, pp. 224-233.
IEEE Abstract. 0403
Fusion, Biometrics. BibRef
And: A1, A3, A2:
A Hyperbolic Function Model for Multiple Biometrics Decision Fusion,
ICBA04(655-662).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef

Toh, K.A.[Kar-Ann], Yau, W.Y.[Wei-Yun], Lim, E.[Eyung], Chen, L.[Lawrence], Ng, C.H.[Chin-Hon],
Fusion of Auxiliary Information for Multi-modal Biometrics Authentication,
ICBA04(678-685).
Springer DOI 0505
BibRef

Fierrez-Aguilar, J.[Julian], Ortega-Garcia, J.[Javier], Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.[Joaquin], Bigun, J.[Josef],
Discriminative multimodal biometric authentication based on quality measures,
PR(38), No. 5, May 2005, pp. 777-779.
WWW Link. 0501
BibRef
Earlier: A4, A1, A2, A3:
Multimodal biometric authentication using quality signals in mobile communications,
CIAP03(2-11).
IEEE DOI 0310
BibRef

Fierrez-Aguilar, J.[Julian], Garcia-Romero, D.[Daniel], Ortega-Garcia, J.[Javier], Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.[Joaquin],
Bayesian adaptation for user-dependent multimodal biometric authentication,
PR(38), No. 8, August 2005, pp. 1317-1319.
WWW Link. 0505
BibRef

Fierrez-Aguilar, J.[Julian], Garcia-Romero, D.[Daniel], Ortega-Garcia, J.[Javier], Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.[Joaquin],
Adapted user-dependent multimodal biometric authentication exploiting general information,
PRL(26), No. 16, December 2005, pp. 2628-2639.
WWW Link. 0512
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A3, A2, A4:
A Comparative Evaluation of Fusion Strategies for Multimodal Biometric Verification,
AVBPA03(830-837).
Springer DOI 0310
BibRef

Son, B.J.[Byung-Jun], Lee, Y.B.[Yill-Byung],
The Fusion of Two User-friendly Biometric Modalities: Iris and Face,
IEICE(E89-D), No. 1, January 2006, pp. 372-376.
DOI Link 0601
BibRef
Earlier:
Biometric Authentication System Using Reduced Joint Feature Vector of Iris and Face,
AVBPA05(513).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Rukhin, A.L.[Andrew L.], Malioutov, I.[Igor],
Fusion of biometric algorithms in the recognition problem,
PRL(26), No. 5, April 2005, pp. 679-684.
WWW Link. 0501
BibRef

Toh, K.A., Yau, W.Y.[Wei-Yun],
Fingerprint and speaker verification decisions fusion using a functional link network,
SMC-C(35), No. 3, August 2005, pp. 357-370.
IEEE DOI 0508
BibRef

Veeramachaneni, K., Osadciw, L.A., Varshney, P.K.,
An adaptive multimodal biometric management algorithm,
SMC-C(35), No. 3, August 2005, pp. 344-356.
IEEE DOI 0508
See also Comments on An Adaptive Multimodal Biometric Management Algorithm. BibRef

Tsalakanidou, F.[Filareti], Malassiotis, S.[Sotiris], Strintzis, M.G.[Michael G.],
A 3D face and hand biometric system for robust user-friendly authentication,
PRL(28), No. 16, December 2007, pp. 2238-2249.
WWW Link. 0711
Multimodal biometrics; 3D face; 3D hand geometry; Color images; Classifier fusion; Score normalization See also Face Localization and Authentication Using Color and Depth Images. BibRef

Bouchaffra, D.[Djamel], Amira, A.[Abbes],
Feature generation and machine learning for robust multimodal biometrics,
PR(41), No. 3, March 2008, pp. 775-777.
WWW Link. 0711
Introduction to the issue. BibRef

Bouchaffra, D.[Djamel], Amira, A.[Abbes],
Structural hidden Markov models for biometrics: Fusion of face and fingerprint,
PR(41), No. 3, March 2008, pp. 852-867.
WWW Link. 0711
Multimodal biometrics; Discrete wavelet transform; Ridgelet transform; Structural hidden Markov models; Support vector machines; Classifier combination BibRef

Bouchaffra, D.[Djamel],
Embedding HMMs-based models in a Euclidean space: The topological hidden Markov models,
PR(43), No. 7, July 2010, pp. 2590-2607.
Elsevier DOI 1003
BibRef
Earlier: ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
Structural hidden markov models. BibRef

Maurer, D.E.[Donald E.], Baker, J.P.[John P.],
Fusing multimodal biometrics with quality estimates via a Bayesian belief network,
PR(41), No. 3, March 2008, pp. 821-832.
WWW Link. 0711
Biometrics; Multimodal biometrics; Bayesian belief networks; Fingerprint match scores; Voice match scores; Information fusion BibRef

Alsaade, F., Ariyaeeinia, A.M., Malegaonkar, A.S., Pawlewski, M., Pillay, S.G.,
Enhancement of multimodal biometric segregation using unconstrained cohort normalisation,
PR(41), No. 3, March 2008, pp. 814-820.
WWW Link. 0711
Multimodal biometrics; Score-level fusion; Unconstrained cohort normalisation; Biometric identification; Biometric verification BibRef

Alsaade, F.[Fawaz], Ariyaeeinia, A.M.[Aladdin M.], Malegaonkar, A.S.[Amit S.], Pillay, S.G.[Surosh G.],
Qualitative fusion of normalised scores in multimodal biometrics,
PRL(30), No. 5, 1 April 2009, pp. 564-569.
Elsevier DOI 0903
Multimodal biometrics; Score-level fusion; Unconstrained cohort normalisation; Qualitative-based fusion BibRef

Zhang, T.H.[Tian-Hao], Li, X.L.[Xue-Long], Tao, D.C.[Da-Cheng], Yang, J.[Jie],
Multimodal biometrics using geometry preserving projections,
PR(41), No. 3, March 2008, pp. 805-813.
WWW Link. 0711
Multimodal biometrics; Geometry preserving projections; Subspace selection BibRef

Theoharis, T.[Theoharis], Passalis, G.[Georgios], Toderici, G.[George], Kakadiaris, I.A.[Ioannis A.],
Unified 3D face and ear recognition using wavelets on geometry images,
PR(41), No. 3, March 2008, pp. 796-804.
WWW Link. 0711
Face recognition; Ear recognition; Multimodal biometrics; Wavelets; Geometry images; Deformable models See also Three-Dimensional Face Recognition in the Presence of Facial Expressions: An Annotated Deformable Model Approach. BibRef

Passalis, G., Kakadiaris, I.A., Theoharis, T., Toderici, G., Papaioannou, T.,
Towards fast 3D ear recognition for real-life biometric applications,
AVSBS07(39-44).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Patra, A.[Arpita], Das, S.[Sukhendu],
Enhancing decision combination of face and fingerprint by exploitation of individual classifier space: An approach to multi-modal biometry,
PR(41), No. 7, July 2008, pp. 2298-2308.
WWW Link. 0804
Fusion; Scatter matrices; Response vector; LDA; Decision profile BibRef

Kanhangad, V., Kumar, A., Zhang, D.,
Comments on 'An Adaptive Multimodal Biometric Management Algorithm',
SMC-C(38), No. 6, November 2008, pp. 841-843.
IEEE DOI 0812
See also adaptive multimodal biometric management algorithm, An. BibRef

Tao, Q.[Qian], Veldhuis, R.N.J.[Raymond N.J.],
Threshold-optimized decision-level fusion and its application to biometrics,
PR(42), No. 5, May 2009, pp. 823-836.
Elsevier DOI 0902
BibRef
Earlier:
Hybrid fusion for biometrics: Combining score-level and decision-level fusion,
Biometrics08(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0806
Fusion; Matching score level; Decision level; Threshold-optimized decision-level fusion BibRef

Fox, N.A., Gross, R., Cohn, J.F., Reilly, R.B.,
Robust Biometric Person Identification Using Automatic Classifier Fusion of Speech, Mouth, and Face Experts,
MultMed(9), No. 4, 2007, pp. 701-714.
IEEE DOI 0905
BibRef

Marcialis, G.L.[Gian Luca], Roli, F.[Fabio], Didaci, L.[Luca],
Personal identity verification by serial fusion of fingerprint and face matchers,
PR(42), No. 11, November 2009, pp. 2807-2817.
Elsevier DOI 0907
Biometrics; Fingerprint verification; Face verification; Multi-stage classification BibRef

Marcialis, G.L.[Gian Luca], Roli, F.[Fabio],
Score-level fusion of fingerprint and face matchers for personal verification under 'stress' conditions,
CIAP07(259-264).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef

Lobrano, C.[Carlo], Tronci, R.[Roberto], Giacinto, G.[Giorgio], Roli, F.[Fabio],
A Score Decidability Index for Dynamic Score Combination,
ICPR10(69-72).
IEEE DOI 1008
BibRef

Tronci, R.[Roberto], Giacinto, G.[Giorgio], Roli, F.[Fabio],
Dynamic score combination of binary experts,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI 0812
BibRef
And:
Combination of Experts by Classifiers in Similarity Score Spaces,
SSPR08(821-830).
Springer DOI 0812
BibRef
Earlier:
Dynamic Score Selection for Fusion of Multiple Biometric Matchers,
CIAP07(15-22).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A3, A1:
Score Selection Techniques for Fingerprint Multi-modal Biometric Authentication,
CIAP05(1018-1025).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Rattani, A.[Ajita], Marcialis, G.L.[Gian Luca], Roli, F.[Fabio],
Temporal Analysis of Biometric Template Update Procedures in Uncontrolled Environment,
CIAP11(I: 595-604).
Springer DOI 1109
BibRef
Earlier:
An Experimental Analysis of the Relationship between Biometric Template Update and the Doddington's Zoo: A Case Study in Face Verification,
CIAP09(434-442).
Springer DOI 0909
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1, A3:
Biometric Template Update: An Experimental Investigation on the Relationship between Update Errors and Performance Degradation in Face Verification,
SSPR08(684-693).
Springer DOI 0812
BibRef

Ross, A., Rattani, A.[Ajita], Tistarelli, M.[Massimo],
Exploiting the 'Doddington Zoo' effect in biometric fusion,
BTAS09(1-7).
IEEE DOI 0909
BibRef

Rattani, A.[Ajita], Freni, B.[Biagio], Marcialis, G.L.[Gian Luca], Roli, F.[Fabio],
Template Update Methods in Adaptive Biometric Systems: A Critical Review,
ICB09(847-856).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef

Didaci, L.[Luca], Marcialis, G.L.[Gian Luca], Roli, F.[Fabio],
Modelling FRR of Biometric Verification Systems Using the Template Co-update Algorithm,
ICB09(765-774).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Wong, R.[Rita], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.], Roli, F.[Fabio],
Challenges and Research Directions for Adaptive Biometric Recognition Systems,
ICB09(753-764).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef

Didaci, L.[Luca], Marcialis, G.L.[Gian Luca], Roli, F.[Fabio],
A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Template Co-update in Biometric Verification Systems,
SSPR08(765-774).
Springer DOI 0812
BibRef
Earlier: A3, A1, A2:
Template Co-update in Multimodal Biometric Systems,
ICB07(1194-1202).
Springer DOI 0708
BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Bourlai, T.[Thirimachos], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.],
A multimodal biometric test bed for quality-dependent, cost-sensitive and client-specific score-level fusion algorithms,
PR(43), No. 3, March 2010, pp. 1094-1105.
Elsevier DOI 1001
Multimodal biometric authentication; Benchmark; Database; Fusion BibRef

Proença, H.[Hugo],
Biometric Recognition: When Is Evidence Fusion Advantageous?,
ISVC09(II: 698-708).
Springer DOI 0911
BibRef

He, M.X.[Ming-Xing], Horng, S.J.[Shi-Jinn], Fan, P.Z.[Ping-Zhi], Run, R.S.[Ray-Shine], Chen, R.J.[Rong-Jian], Lai, J.L.[Jui-Lin], Khan, M.K.[Muhammad Khurram], Sentosa, K.O.[Kevin Octavius],
Performance evaluation of score level fusion in multimodal biometric systems,
PR(43), No. 5, May 2010, pp. 1789-1800.
Elsevier DOI 1003
Multimodal biometrics; Score level fusion; Verification; Normalization; Sum rule; Support vector machines BibRef

Ekenel, H.K.[Hazim Kemal], Stallkamp, J.[Johannes], Stiefelhagen, R.[Rainer],
A video-based door monitoring system using local appearance-based face models,
CVIU(114), No. 5, May 2010, pp. 596-608.
Elsevier DOI 1004
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1, A3:
Video-based Face Recognition on Real-World Data,
ICCV07(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0710
Face recognition from video; Face detection; Feature tracking; Door monitoring; Discrete cosine transform; Fusion BibRef

Ekenel, H.K.[Hazim Kemal], Fischer, M.[Mika], Jin, Q.[Qin], Stiefelhagen, R.[Rainer],
Multi-modal Person Identification in a Smart Environment,
Biometrics07(1-8).
IEEE DOI 0706
BibRef

Ekenel, H.K.[Hazim Kemal], Stiefelhagen, R.[Rainer],
Why Is Facial Occlusion a Challenging Problem?,
ICB09(299-308).
Springer DOI 0906
BibRef

Allano, L.[Lorene], Dorizzi, B.[Bernadette], Garcia-Salicetti, S.[Sonia],
Tuning cost and performance in multi-biometric systems: A novel and consistent view of fusion strategies based on the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT),
PRL(31), No. 9, 1 July 2010, pp. 884-890.
Elsevier DOI 1004
Multi-biometrics; Fusion; Sequential strategy; Cost optimization; Sequential Probability Ratio Test BibRef

Allano, L.[Lorène], Dorizzi, B.[Bernadette], Garcia-Salicetti, S.[Sonia],
A new protocol for multi-biometric systems' evaluation maintaining the dependencies between biometric scores,
PR(45), No. 1, January 2012, pp. 119-127.
Elsevier DOI 1109
Performance evaluation; Multibiometric scores' fusion; Independency criteria; Independency tests; Chimeric persons; Clustering BibRef

Garcia-Salicetti, S.[Sonia], Mellakh, M.A.[Mohamed Anouar], Allano, L.[Lorène], Dorizzi, B.[Bernadette],
A Generic Protocol for Multibiometric Systems Evaluation on Virtual and Real Subjects,
AVBPA05(494).
Springer DOI 0509
BibRef

Bhargav-Spantzel, A., Squicciarini, A.C., Xue, R., Bertino, E.,
Multifactor Identity Verification Using Aggregated Proof of Knowledge,
SMC-C(40), No. 4, July 2010, pp. 372-383.
IEEE DOI 1007
Many factors. BibRef

Conti, V., Militello, C., Sorbello, F., Vitabile, S.,
A Frequency-based Approach for Features Fusion in Fingerprint and Iris Multimodal Biometric Identification Systems,
SMC-C(40), No. 4, July 2010, pp. 384-395.
IEEE DOI 1007
BibRef

Alonso-Fernandez, F., Fierrez, J., Ramos, D., Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.,
Quality-Based Conditional Processing in Multi-Biometrics: Application to Sensor Interoperability,
SMC-A(40), No. 6, November 2010, pp. 1168-1179.
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef

Jiang, R.M., Sadka, A.H., Crookes, D.,
Multimodal Biometric Human Recognition for Perceptual Human-Computer Interaction,
SMC-C(40), No. 6, November 2010, pp. 676-681.
IEEE DOI 1011
BibRef

Raghavendra, R., Dorizzi, B.[Bernadette], Rao, A.[Ashok], Hemantha Kumar, G.,
Designing efficient fusion schemes for multimodal biometric systems using face and palmprint,
PR(44), No. 5, May 2011, pp. 1076-1088.
Elsevier DOI 1101
BibRef
Earlier:
PSO versus AdaBoost for feature selection in multimodal biometrics,
BTAS09(1-7).
IEEE DOI 0909
Multimodal biometrics; Feature level fusion; Feature selection; Particle swarm optimization; Match score level fusion See also Particle swarm optimization based fusion of near infrared and visible images for improved face verification. BibRef

Kumar, A., Shekhar, S.,
Personal Identification Using Multibiometrics Rank-Level Fusion,
SMC-C(41), No. 5, September 2011, pp. 743-752.
IEEE DOI 1109
BibRef

Hanmandlu, M.[Madasu], Grover, J.[Jyotsana], Gureja, A.[Ankit], Gupta, H.M.,
Score level fusion of multimodal biometrics using triangular norms,
PRL(32), No. 14, 15 October 2011, pp. 1843-1850.
Elsevier DOI 1110
Biometrics; Triangular norms; Multimodal authentication; Score level fusion; Decidability index BibRef

Kumar, A.[Amioy], Hanmandlu, M.[Madasu], Sanghvi, H.[Harsh], Gupta, H.M.,
Decision level biometric fusion using Ant Colony Optimization,
ICIP10(3105-3108).
IEEE DOI 1009
BibRef

Liu, Y.F., Lin, C.Y., Guo, J.M.,
Impact of the Lips for Biometrics,
IP(21), No. 6, June 2012, pp. 3092-3101.
IEEE DOI 1202
BibRef

Liu, C.J.[Cheng-Jun], Mago, V.K.[Vijay Kumar],
Cross Disciplinary Biometric Systems,
Springer2012, ISBN: 978-3-642-28456-4


WWW Link. 1205
Face recognition, iris recognition and fingerprint recognition. BibRef

Monwar, M.M.[M. Maruf], Gavrilova, M.L.[Marina L.],
Markov chain model for multimodal biometric rank fusion,
SIViP(7), No. 1, January 2013, pp. 137-149.
WWW Link. 1301
BibRef
Earlier:
Integrating monomodal biometric matchers through logistic regression rank aggregation approach,
AIPR08(1-7).
IEEE DOI 0810
BibRef

Huang, Z.X.[Zeng-Xi], Liu, Y.G.[Yi-Guang], Li, C.G.[Chun-Guang], Yang, M.L.[Meng-Long], Chen, L.P.[Li-Ping],
A robust face and ear based multimodal biometric system using sparse representation,
PR(46), No. 8, August 2013, pp. 2156-2168.
Elsevier DOI 1304
Face and ear; Sparse representation; Feature level fusion; Sparse Coding Error Ratio (SCER); Adaptive feature weighting BibRef

Huang, Z.X.[Zeng-Xi], Liu, Y.G.[Yi-Guang], Li, X.[Xuwei], Li, J.[Jie],
An adaptive bimodal recognition framework using sparse coding for face and ear,
PRL(53), No. 1, 2015, pp. 69-76.
Elsevier DOI 1502
Multimodal recognition BibRef

Poh, N.[Norman], Ross, A.[Arun], Lee, W.F.[Wei-Feng], Kittler, J.V.[Josef V.],
A user-specific and selective multimodal biometric fusion strategy by ranking subjects,
PR(46), No. 12, 2013, pp. 3341-3357.
Elsevier DOI 1308
BibRef
And: Corrigendum: PR(47), No. 1, 2014, p. 493.
Elsevier DOI 1310
Biometrics BibRef

Raghavendra, R.,
Novel mixture model-based approaches for person verification using multimodal biometrics,
SIViP(7), No. 5, September 2013, pp. 1015-1028.
WWW Link. 1309
BibRef

Shekhar, S.[Sumit], Patel, V.M.[Vishal M.], Nasrabadi, N.M.[Nasser M.], Chellappa, R.[Rama],
Joint Sparse Representation for Robust Multimodal Biometrics Recognition,
PAMI(36), No. 1, 2014, pp. 113-126.
IEEE DOI 1312
BibRef
Earlier:
Joint Sparsity-Based Robust Multimodal Biometrics Recognition,
Concept12(III: 365-374).
Springer DOI 1210
Multimodal biometrics; feature fusion; sparse representation BibRef

Zhang, H.[Heng], Patel, V.M.[Vishal M.], Chellappa, R.[Rama],
Low-Rank and Joint Sparse Representations for Multi-Modal Recognition,
IP(26), No. 10, October 2017, pp. 4741-4752.
IEEE DOI 1708
BibRef
Earlier:
Multitask multivariate common sparse representations for robust multimodal biometrics recognition,
ICIP15(202-206)
IEEE DOI 1512
BibRef
Earlier:
Robust multimodal recognition via multitask multivariate low-rank representations,
FG15(1-8)
IEEE DOI 1508
regression analysis, generalized versions, joint sparse constraints, joint sparse representations, low rank representations, multimodal observations, multimodal recognition, multivariate methods, sparse regression, Biometrics (access control), Feature extraction, Nickel, Optimization, Robustness, Sparse matrices, Training, Multi-modal recognition, feature-level fusion, joint-sparse representation, common sparse representation; multimodal biometrics recognition face recognition BibRef

Gomez-Barrero, M.[Marta], Galbally, J.[Javier], Fierrez, J.[Julian],
Efficient software attack to multimodal biometric systems and its application to face and iris fusion,
PRL(36), No. 1, 2014, pp. 243-253.
Elsevier DOI 1312
Multimodal system BibRef

Bugdol, M.D.[Marcin D.], Mitas, A.W.[Andrzej W.],
Multimodal biometric system combining ECG and sound signals,
PRL(38), No. 1, 2014, pp. 107-112.
Elsevier DOI 1402
Behavioural biometrics BibRef

Karmakar, D.[Dhiman], Murthy, C.A.,
Generation of new points for training set and feature-level fusion in multimodal biometric identification,
MVA(25), No. 2, February 2014, pp. 477-487.
WWW Link. 1402
BibRef

Fathy, M.E.[Mohammed E.], Patel, V.M.[Vishal M.], Yeh, T.[Tom], Zhang, Y.M.[Yang-Muzi], Chellappa, R.[Rama], Davis, L.S.[Larry S.],
Screen-based active user authentication,
PRL(42), No. 1, 2014, pp. 122-127.
Elsevier DOI 1404
Cyber biometrics BibRef

de Paula Canuto, A.M., Fairhurst, M.C., Pintro, F.,
Ensemble systems and cancellable transformations for multibiometric-based identification,
IET-Bio(3), No. 1, March 2014, pp. 29-40.
DOI Link 1406
BibRef

Baig, A., Bouridane, A., Kurugollu, F., Albesher, B.,
Cascaded multimodal biometric recognition framework,
IET-Bio(3), No. 1, March 2014, pp. 16-28.
DOI Link 1406
BibRef

Eskandari, M.[Maryam], Toygar, Ö.[Önsen],
Fusion of face and iris biometrics using local and global feature extraction methods,
SIViP(8), No. 6, September 2014, pp. 995-1006.
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Eskandari, M.[Maryam], Toygar, Ö.[Önsen], Demirel, H.[Hasan],
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Multibiometric System Using Level Set, Modified LBP and Random Forest,
IJIG(14), No. 03, 2014, pp. 1450013.
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Earlier: A1, A4, Only:
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ICCVG12(590-599).
Springer DOI 1210
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And: A1, A4, Only:
Multibiometric System Using Level Set Method and Particle Swarm Optimization,
ICIAR12(II: 20-29).
Springer DOI 1206
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Sun, Z.A.[Zhen-An], Wang, L.[Libin], Tan, T.N.[Tie-Niu],
Ordinal Feature Selection for Iris and Palmprint Recognition,
IP(23), No. 9, September 2014, pp. 3922-3934.
IEEE DOI 1410
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Earlier: A2, A1, A3:
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ACPR13(79-83)
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image matching. feature selection BibRef

Nair, S.K.R.[Suresh Kumar Ramachandran], Bhanu, B.[Bir], Ghosh, S.[Subir], Thakoor, N.S.[Ninad S.],
Predictive models for multibiometric systems,
PR(47), No. 12, 2014, pp. 3779-3792.
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Object recognition BibRef

Khan, S.H.[Salman H.], Akbar, M.A.[M. Ali], Shahzad, F.[Farrukh], Farooq, M.[Mudassar], Khan, Z.[Zeashan],
Secure biometric template generation for multi-factor authentication,
PR(48), No. 2, 2015, pp. 458-472.
Elsevier DOI 1411
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Paul, P.P., Gavrilova, M.L., Alhajj, R.,
Decision Fusion for Multimodal Biometrics Using Social Network Analysis,
SMCS(44), No. 11, November 2014, pp. 1522-1533.
IEEE DOI 1411
decision making BibRef

De Marsico, M.[Maria], Galdi, C.[Chiara], Nappi, M.[Michele], Riccio, D.[Daniel],
FIRME: Face and Iris Recognition for Mobile Engagement,
IVC(32), No. 12, 2014, pp. 1161-1172.
Elsevier DOI 1412
Android BibRef

Abate, A.F.[Andrea F.], De Marsico, M.[Maria], Nappi, M.[Michele], Riccio, D.[Daniel],
A Self-updating Multiexpert System for Face Identification,
CIAP09(346-354).
Springer DOI 0909
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Abate, A.F.[Andrea F.], Nappi, M.[Michele], Riccio, D.[Daniel], Sabatino, G.[Gabriele],
3D Face Recognition using Normal Sphere and General Fourier Descriptor,
ICPR06(III: 1183-1186).
IEEE DOI 0609
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Abate, A.F.[Andrea F.], Nappi, M.[Michele], Riccio, D.[Daniel], Tucci, M.[Maurizio],
Occluded Face Recognition by Means of the IFS,
ICIAR05(1073-1080).
Springer DOI 0509
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Abate, A.F.[Andrea F.], Nappi, M.[Michele], Riccio, D.[Daniel], Tortora, G.,
An IFS Based Approach for Face Recognition,
ICIP05(II: 938-941).
IEEE DOI 0512
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Abate, A.F.[Andrea Francesco], Nappi, M.[Michele], Ricciardi, S.[Stefano], Sabatino, G.[Gabriele],
Fast 3D Face Alignment and Improved Recognition Through Pyramidal Normal map Metric,
ICIP07(I: 157-160).
IEEE DOI 0709
BibRef
And:
GPU Accelerated 3D Face Registration/Recognition,
ICB07(938-947).
Springer DOI 0708
BibRef
Earlier:
Ultra Fast GPU Assisted Face Recognition Based on 3D Geometry and Texture Data,
ICIAR06(II: 353-364).
Springer DOI 0610
BibRef
And:
Multi-Modal Face Recognition by Means of Augmented Normal Map and PCA,
ICIP06(649-652).
IEEE DOI 0610
BibRef
Earlier:
Fast 3D Face Recognition Based On Normal Map,
ICIP05(II: 946-949).
IEEE DOI 0512
See also Ear Recognition by means of a Rotation Invariant Descriptor. See also Face authentication using speed fractal technique. BibRef

Alam, M.R.[Mohammad Rafiqul], Bennamoun, M.[Mohammed], Togneri, R.[Roberto], Sohel, F.A.[Ferdous A.],
A confidence-based late fusion framework for audio-visual biometric identification,
PRL(52), No. 1, 2015, pp. 65-71.
Elsevier DOI 1412
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And:
Deep Boltzmann Machines for i-Vector Based Audio-Visual Person Identification,
PSIVT15(631-641).
Springer DOI 1602
Score-level fusion BibRef

Alam, M.R.[Mohammad Rafiqul], Bennamoun, M.[Mohammed], Togneri, R.[Roberto], Sohel, F.A.[Ferdous A.],
A Joint Deep Boltzmann Machine (jDBM) Model for Person Identification Using Mobile Phone Data,
MultMed(19), No. 2, February 2017, pp. 317-326.
IEEE DOI 1702
Boltzmann machines BibRef

Nguyen, K.[Kien], Denman, S.[Simon], Sridharan, S.[Sridha], Fookes, C.,
Score-Level Multibiometric Fusion Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory Incorporating Uncertainty Factors,
HMS(45), No. 1, February 2015, pp. 132-140.
IEEE DOI 1502
biometrics (access control) BibRef

Ali, T., Spreeuwers, L.J., Veldhuis, R.N.J.[Raimond N.J.], Meuwly, D.,
Biometric evidence evaluation: An empirical assessment of the effect of different training data,
IET-Bio(3), No. 4, 2014, pp. 335-346.
DOI Link 1504
digital forensics BibRef

Haraksim, R.[Rudolf], Ramos, D.[Daniel], Meuwly, D.[Didier],
Validation of likelihood ratio methods for forensic evidence evaluation handling multimodal score distributions,
IET-Bio(6), No. 2, March 2017, pp. 61-69.
DOI Link 1703
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Arigbabu, O.A.[Olasimbo Ayodeji], Ahmad, S.M.S.[Sharifah Mumtazah Syed], Adnan, W.A.W.[Wan Azizun Wan], Yussof, S.[Salman],
Recent advances in facial soft biometrics,
VC(31), No. 5, May 2015, pp. 513-525.
Springer DOI 1505
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Arigbabu, O.A.[Olasimbo Ayodeji], Ahmad, S.M.S.[Sharifah Mumtazah Syed], Adnan, W.A.W.[Wan Azizun Wan], Yussof, S.[Salman],
Integration of multiple soft biometrics for human identification,
PRL(68, Part 2), No. 1, 2015, pp. 278-287.
Elsevier DOI 1512
Soft biometrics BibRef

Eskandari, M.[Maryam], Toygar, Ö.[Önsen],
Selection of optimized features and weights on face-iris fusion using distance images,
CVIU(137), No. 1, 2015, pp. 63-75.
Elsevier DOI 1506
Multimodal biometrics BibRef

Zhang, H.[Hao], Beveridge, J.R.[J. Ross], Draper, B.A.[Bruce A.], Phillips, P.J.[P. Jonathon],
On the effectiveness of soft biometrics for increasing face verification rates,
CVIU(137), No. 1, 2015, pp. 50-62.
Elsevier DOI 1506
Soft biometrics. attributes of people such as their gender, the shape of their head or the color of their hair. BibRef

Bharadwaj, S.[Samarth], Bhatt, H.S.[Himanshu S.], Singh, R.[Richa], Vatsa, M.[Mayank], Noore, A.[Afzel],
QFuse: Online learning framework for adaptive biometric system,
PR(48), No. 11, 2015, pp. 3428-3439.
Elsevier DOI 1506
Biometrics BibRef

Sheng, W.G.[Wei-Guo], Chen, S.Y.[Sheng-Yong], Xiao, G.[Gang], Mao, J.[Jiafa], Zheng, Y.J.[Yu-Jun],
A Biometric Key Generation Method Based on Semisupervised Data Clustering,
SMCS(45), No. 9, September 2015, pp. 1205-1217.
IEEE DOI 1509
authorisation BibRef

Irhebhude, M.E.[Martins E.], Edirisinghe, E.A.[Eran A.],
Personnel Recognition in the Military using Multiple Features,
IJCVSP(5), No. 1, 2015, pp. xx-yy.
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Roy, K., Shelton, J., O'Connor, B., Kamel, M.S.,
Multibiometric system using fuzzy level set, and genetic and evolutionary feature extraction,
IET-Bio(4), No. 3, 2015, pp. 151-161.
DOI Link 1509
face recognition BibRef

Wu, H.T.[Hung-Tsai], Wu, Y.T.[Yi-Ting], Chang, W.W.[Wen-Whei],
Biometric Identification Using JPEG2000 Compressed ECG Signals,
IEICE(E98-D), No. 10, October 2015, pp. 1829-1837.
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Vivaracho-Pascual, C.[Carlos], Simon-Hurtado, A.[Arancha], Manso-Martinez, E.[Esperanza], Pascual-Gaspar, J.M.[Juan M.],
Client threshold prediction in biometric signature recognition by means of Multiple Linear Regression and its use for score normalization,
PR(55), No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-13.
Elsevier DOI 1604
Biometric signature recognition BibRef

Mehrotra, H.[Hunny], Singh, R.[Richa], Vatsa, M.[Mayank], Majhi, B.[Banshidhar],
Incremental granular relevance vector machine: A case study in multimodal biometrics,
PR(56), No. 1, 2016, pp. 63-76.
Elsevier DOI 1604
Incremental learning BibRef

Lim, M.H., Yuen, P.C.,
Entropy Measurement for Biometric Verification Systems,
Cyber(46), No. 5, May 2016, pp. 1065-1077.
IEEE DOI 1604
Biological system modeling BibRef

Farmanbar, M.[Mina], Toygar, Ö.[Önsen],
Feature selection for the fusion of face and palmprint biometrics,
SIViP(10), No. 5, May 2016, pp. 951-958.
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Farmanbar, M.[Mina], Toygar, Ö.[Önsen],
Spoof detection on face and palmprint biometrics,
SIViP(11), No. 7, October 2017, pp. 1253-1260.
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Lim, M.H.[Meng-Hui], Verma, S.[Sunny], Mai, G.C.[Guang-Can], Yuen, P.C.[Pong C.],
Learning discriminability-preserving histogram representation from unordered features for multibiometric feature-fused-template protection,
PR(60), No. 1, 2016, pp. 706-719.
Elsevier DOI 1609
Histograms BibRef

Stevenage, S.V.[Sarah V.], Guest, R.M.[Richard M.],
Combining forces: Data fusion across man and machine for biometric analysis,
IVC(55, Part 1), No. 1, 2016, pp. 18-21.
Elsevier DOI 1612
Biometric identification BibRef

Mai, G.C.[Guang-Can], Lim, M.H.[Meng-Hui], Yuen, P.C.[Pong C.],
Binary feature fusion for discriminative and secure multi-biometric cryptosystems,
IVC(58), No. 1, 2017, pp. 254-265.
Elsevier DOI 1703
Biometric BibRef

Peng, G., Zhou, G., Nguyen, D.T., Qi, X., Yang, Q., Wang, S.,
Continuous Authentication With Touch Behavioral Biometrics and Voice on Wearable Glasses,
HMS(47), No. 3, June 2017, pp. 404-416.
IEEE DOI 1706
Accelerometers, Authentication, Biometrics (access control), Feature extraction, Glass, Google, Sensors, Behavioral biometric, continuous authentication, noninvasive, voice authentication, wearable, glasses BibRef

Battaglia, F., Iannizzotto, G., Lo Bello, L.,
A Person Authentication System Based on RFID Tags and a Cascade of Face Recognition Algorithms,
CirSysVideo(27), No. 8, August 2017, pp. 1676-1690.
IEEE DOI 1708
Authentication, Databases, Face, Face recognition, Principal component analysis, RFID tags, Biometrics BibRef

Eskandari, M.[Maryam], Sharifi, O.[Omid],
Optimum scheme selection for face-iris biometric,
IET-Bio(6), No. 5, September 2017, pp. 334-341.
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Cong, Y.[Yang], Sun, G.[Gan], Liu, J.[Ji], Yu, H.B.[Hai-Bin], Luo, J.B.[Jie-Bo],
User attribute discovery with missing labels,
PR(73), No. 1, 2018, pp. 33-46.
Elsevier DOI 1709
such as gender, age, financial, employment, marriage status. From a smart phone. BibRef


Primorac, R., Togneri, R., Bennamoun, M., Sohel, F.,
Audio-visual biometric recognition via joint sparse representations,
ICPR16(3031-3035)
IEEE DOI 1705
Biometrics (access control), Dictionaries, Face, Feature extraction, Training, Visualization, audio-visual biometric recognition, joint, sparse, representations BibRef

Murakami, T., Kaga, Y., Takahashi, K.,
On restricting modalities in likelihood-ratio based biometric score fusion,
ICPR16(3036-3042)
IEEE DOI 1705
Authentication, Biometrics (access control), Entropy, Face, Mutual information, Pins BibRef

Khiari-Hili, N., Montagne, C., Lelandais, S., Hamrouni, K.[Kamel],
Quality dependent multimodal fusion of face and iris biometrics,
IPTA16(1-6)
IEEE DOI 1703
face recognition BibRef

Hinbarji, Z.[Zaher], Albatal, R.[Rami], Gurrin, C.[Cathal],
User Identification by Observing Interactions with GUIs,
MMMod17(I: 540-549).
Springer DOI 1701
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Fan, W.[Wentao], Bouguila, N.[Nizar],
A Nonparametric Hierarchical Bayesian Model and Its Application on Multimodal Person Identity Verification,
ISVC16(II: 399-409).
Springer DOI 1701
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Naderi, H.[Habibeh], Soleimani, B.H.[Behrouz Haji], Matwin, S.[Stan], Araabi, B.N.[Babak Nadjar], Soltanian-Zadeh, H.[Hamid],
Fusing Iris, Palmprint and Fingerprint in a Multi-biometric Recognition System,
CRV16(327-334)
IEEE DOI 1612
Decision Fusion BibRef

Wetzinger, E.[Elisabeth], Atanasov, M.[Michael], Kampel, M.[Martin],
Person Profiling Using Image and Facial Attributes Analyses on Unconstrained Images Retrieved from Online Sources,
ICIAR16(55-62).
Springer DOI 1608
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Kabir, W., Ahmad, M.O., Swamy, M.N.S.,
Score reliability based weighting technique for score-level fusion in multi-biometric systems,
WACV16(1-7)
IEEE DOI 1606
Biometrics (access control) BibRef

Guo, R., Liu, L., Wang, W., Taalimi, A., Zhang, C., Qi, H.,
Deep tree-structured face: A unified representation for multi-task facial biometrics,
WACV16(1-8)
IEEE DOI 1606
Biological system modeling BibRef

Khan, S.H., Akbar, M.A.,
Multi-Factor Authentication on Cloud,
DICTA15(1-7)
IEEE DOI 1603
cloud computing BibRef

Sharma, R.[Renu], Das, S.[Sukhendu], Joshi, P.[Padmaja],
Score Normalization in Multimodal Systems using Generalized Extreme Value Distribution,
BMVC15(xx-yy).
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Talebi, H.[Hossein], Gavrilova, M.L.[Marina L.],
Confidence Based Rank Level Fusion for Multimodal Biometric Systems,
CAIP15(I:211-222).
Springer DOI 1511
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Artabaz, S.[Saliha], Sliman, L.[Layth], Benatchba, K.[Karima], Dellys, H.N.[Hachemi Nabil], Koudil, M.[Mouloud],
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IVIC15(166-177).
Springer DOI 1511
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Mutibiometric System Based on Game Theory,
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Springer DOI 1507
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Wong, Y.K.[Yong-Kang], Chaisorn, L.[Lekha], Kankanhalli, M.S.[Mohan S.],
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HIS14(602-616).
Springer DOI 1504
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Kihal, N., Chitroub, S., Meunier, J.,
Fusion of iris and palmprint for multimodal biometric authentication,
IPTA14(1-6)
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feature extraction BibRef

Miao, D.[Di], Sun, Z.A.[Zhen-An], Huang, Y.Z.[Yong-Zhen],
Fusion of Multibiometrics Based on a New Robust Linear Programming,
ICPR14(291-296)
IEEE DOI 1412
Authentication BibRef

Kumar, A.[Amioy], Kumar, A.[Ajay],
Adaptive Security for Human Surveillance Using Multimodal Open Set Biometric Recognition,
ICPR14(405-410)
IEEE DOI 1412
Accuracy BibRef

Damer, N.[Naser], Alkhatib, W.[Wael], Braun, A.[Andreas], Kuijper, A.[Arjan],
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IbPRIA17(491-500).
Springer DOI 1706
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Damer, N.[Naser], Opel, A.[Alexander],
Multi-biometric Score-Level Fusion and the Integration of the Neighbors Distance Ratio,
ICIAR14(II: 85-93).
Springer DOI 1410
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Shams, G.[Ghada], Ismail, M.[Mohamed], Bassiouny, S.[Sohier], Ghanem, N.[Nagia],
Face and Palmprint Recognition Using Hierarchical Multiscale Adaptive LBP with Directional Statistical Features,
ICIAR14(II: 102-111).
Springer DOI 1410
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Sizov, A.[Aleksandr], Lee, K.A.[Kong Aik], Kinnunen, T.[Tomi],
Unifying Probabilistic Linear Discriminant Analysis Variants in Biometric Authentication,
SSSPR14(464-475).
Springer DOI 1408
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Satheesan, S.P., Tulyakov, S., Govindaraju, V.,
A feature information based approach for enhancing score-level fusion in multi-sample biometric systems,
NCVPRIPG13(1-4)
IEEE DOI 1408
biometrics (access control) BibRef

Damer, N.[Naser], Opel, A.[Alexander], Nouak, A.[Alexander],
Performance Anchored Score Normalization for Multi-biometric Fusion,
ISVC13(II:68-75).
Springer DOI 1311
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de Marsico, M.[Maria], Nappi, M.[Michele], Riccio, D.[Daniel],
Fusion of Multi-biometric Recognition Results by Representing Score and Reliability as a Complex Number,
CIARP13(II:302-309).
Springer DOI 1311
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Gomez-Barrero, M.[Marta], Galbally, J.[Javier], Fierrez, J.[Julian], Ortega-Garcia, J.[Javier],
Multimodal Biometric Fusion: A Study on Vulnerabilities to Indirect Attacks,
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Springer DOI 1311
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Bhatt, H.S.[Himanshu S.], Singh, R.[Richa], Vatsa, M.[Mayank],
Can Combining Demographics and Biometrics Improve De-Duplication Performance?,
Biometrics13(188-193)
IEEE DOI 1309
Biometrics; de-duplication; fusion BibRef

Hossain, M.S.[Md S.], Balagani, K.S.[Kiran S.], Phoha, V.V.[Vir V.],
On Controlling Genuine Reject Rate in Multi-stage Biometric Verification,
Biometrics13(194-199)
IEEE DOI 1309
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Ma, B.[Bin], Li, C.[Chunlei], Wang, Y.H.[Yun-Hong], Zhang, Z.X.[Zhao-Xiang], Huang, D.[Di],
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Imran, M., Rao, A., Kumar, G.H.,
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NCVPRIPG11(235-238).
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Belahcene, M.[Mebarka], Ouamane, A.[Abdelmalik], Taleb-Ahmed, A.[Abdelmalik],
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Jang, J.[Jihyeon], Kim, H.[Hakil],
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CIAP11(II: 255-264).
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Gong, Y.M.[Yan-Min], Chen, J.S.[Jian-Sheng], Su, G.D.[Guang-Da],
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ICIG11(998-1003).
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Nallagatla, V.P.[Vishnu Priya], Chandran, V.[Vinod],
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Multimodal identification using Markov logic networks,
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Privacy Preserving Facial and Fingerprint Multi-biometric Authentication,
DW10(239-250).
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Park, S.W.[Sung Won], Savvides, M.[Marios],
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CVPR11(2817-2824).
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FG11(464-469).
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Earlier:
An extension of multifactor analysis for face recognition based on submanifold learning,
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Tyagi, V.[Vivek], Ratha, N.K.[Nalini K.],
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Basak, J.[Jayanta], Kate, K.[Kiran], Tyagi, V.[Vivek], Ratha, N.K.[Nalini K.],
QPLC: A novel multimodal biometric score fusion method,
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Ramakrishnan, V.[Veshnu], Ratha, N.K.[Nalini K.],
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Tong, Y.[Yan], Wheeler, F.W.[Frederick W.], Liu, X.M.[Xiao-Ming],
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Vatsa, M.[Mayank], Singh, R.[Richa], Noore, A.[Afzel],
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PReMI09(452-457).
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Kelkboom, E.J.C., Zhou, X., Breebaart, J., Veldhuis, R.N.J., Busch, C.,
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Abaza, A.[Ayman], Ross, A.A.[Arun A.],
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BTAS09(1-6).
IEEE DOI 0909
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Kanade, S., Petrovska-Delacretaz, D., Dorizzi, B.,
Multi-biometrics based cryptographic key regeneration scheme,
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Sanderson, C.[Conrad],
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Toh, K.A.[Kar-Ann],
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Choudury, T., Clarkson, B.P., Jebara, T., Pentland, A.P.,
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Abdeljaoued, Y.,
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Foltyniewicz, R.[Rafal], Sitnik, M.[Maciej],
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ICIP96(III: 495-498).
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Chapter on Face Recognition, Detection, Tracking, Gesture Recognition, Fingerprints, Biometrics continues in
Biometrics, Active Recognition, Continuous Recognition, Mobile Device .


Last update:Sep 22, 2017 at 21:00:01